The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: eosinophilia
Cardiac Disorders: atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, tachycardia, bradycardia
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: vertigo
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: asthenia, edema
Hepatobiliary: Abnormal hepatic function / liver disorder
Immune System Disorders: anaphylactic reaction
Infections and Infestations: urinary tract infection
Investigations: increased CPK
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: hypoglycemia (in diabetic patients)
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: tendon pain (including tendonitis, tenosynovitis), rhabdomyolysis
Nervous System Disorders: syncope, headache
Renal and Urinary Disorders: renal failure, renal impairment including acute renal failure
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: erectile dysfunction
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: coughing
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: drug eruption (toxic skin eruption mostly reported as toxicoderma, rash, and urticaria), angioedema (with fatal outcome)
Vascular Disorder: orthostatic hypotension
Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported with concomitant use of thiazide diuretics or angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including telmisartan. Monitor lithium levels in patients receiving telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and lithium.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ARBs, including telmisartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. The antihypertensive effect of ARBs may be attenuated by NSAIDs. Therefore, monitor renal function and blood pressure periodically in patients receiving telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and NSAIDs.
Administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, including a selective COX-2 inhibitor, can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of diuretics. Therefore, when telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents including selective COX-2 inhibitors are used concomitantly, observe closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) with angiotensin blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and renal impairment. The ONTARGET trial enrolled 25,620 patients ≥55 years old with atherosclerotic disease or diabetes with end-organ damage, randomizing them to telmisartan (ARB) only, ramipril (ACE inhibitor) only, or the combination, and followed them for a median of 56 months. Patients who received the combination of ARB and ACE inhibitor did not obtain any additional benefit (no additional reduction of risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization from heart failure) compared to ARB monotherapy or ACE inhibitor monotherapy, but experienced an increased incidence of renal dysfunction (e.g., acute renal failure) compared with monotherapy groups.
In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide and other agents that affect the RAS.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in patients with diabetes. Avoid concomitant use of aliskiren with telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2).
When telmisartan was co-administered with digoxin, median increases in digoxin peak plasma concentration (49%) and in trough concentration (20%) were observed. Monitor digoxin levels in patients taking concomitant telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide and digoxin.
Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Stagger the dosage of hydrochlorothiazide and the resin such that hydrochlorothiazide is administered at least 4 hours before or 4 to 6 hours after the administration of the resin.
Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death (see Clinical Considerations). Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the rennin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Studies in rats and rabbits with telmisartan showed fetotoxicity only at maternally toxic doses (see Data). When pregnancy is detected, discontinue telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets as soon as possible.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Use of drugs that act on the RAS in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: oligohydramnios, reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.
In patients taking telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and replacing renal function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Thiazides cross the placenta, and use of thiazides during pregnancy is associated with a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possible other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults.
Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets
A developmental toxicity study was performed in rats with telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide doses of 3.2/1.0, 15/4.7, 50/15.6, and 0/15.6 mg/kg/day. Although the two higher dose combinations appeared to be more toxic (significant decrease in body weight gain) to the dams than either drug alone, there did not appear to be an increase in toxicity to the developing embryos.
No teratogenic effects were observed when telmisartan was administered to pregnant rats at oral doses of up to 50 mg/kg/day and to pregnant rabbits at oral doses of up to 45 mg/kg/day. In rabbits, embryo lethality associated with maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain and food consumption) was observed at 45 mg/kg/day (approximately 12 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 80 mg on a mg/m 2 basis). In rats, maternally toxic (reduced body weight gain and food consumption) telmisartan doses of 15 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.9 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), administered during late gestation and lactation, were observed to produce adverse effects in neonates, including reduced viability, low birth weight, delayed maturation, and decreased weight gain. The no-observed effect doses for developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits, 5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively, are approximately 0.64 and 3.7 times, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis, the MRHD of telmisartan (80 mg/day).
Studies in which hydrochlorothiazide was administered to pregnant mice and rats during their respective periods of major organogenesis at doses up to 3000 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively (about 600 and 400 times the MRHD), provided no evidence of harm to the fetus.
Thiazides can cross the placenta, and concentrations reached in the umbilical vein approach those in the maternal plasma. Hydrochlorothiazide, like other diuretics, can cause placental hypoperfusion. It accumulates in the amniotic fluid, with reported concentrations up to 19 times that in umbilical vein plasma. Use of thiazides during pregnancy is associated with a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice or thrombocytopenia. Since they do not prevent or alter the course of EPH (Edema, Proteinuria, Hypertension) gestosis (pre-eclampsia), these drugs should not be used to treat hypertension in pregnant women. The use of hydrochlorothiazide for other indications (e.g., heart disease) in pregnancy should be avoided.
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