TEMAZEPAM (Page 3 of 5)

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in rats at dietary temazepam doses up to 160 mg/kg/day for 24 months and in mice at dietary doses of 160 mg/kg/day for 18 months. No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed although hyperplastic liver nodules were observed in female mice exposed to the highest dose. The clinical significance of this finding is not known.

Fertility in male and female rats was not adversely affected by temazepam capsules.

No mutagenicity tests have been done with temazepam.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category X ( see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when temazepam capsules are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Restoril did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy commonly observed in this population. Temazepam capsules 7.5 mg is recommended as the initial dosage for patients aged 65 and over since the risk of the development of oversedation, dizziness, confusion, ataxia and/or falls increases substantially with larger doses of benzodiazepines in elderly and debilitated patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

During controlled clinical studies in which 1076 patients received temazepam capsules at bedtime, the drug was well tolerated. Side effects were usually mild and transient. Adverse reactions occurring in 1% or more of patients are presented in the following table:

Temazepam Capsules % Incidence (n=1076)

Placebo % Incidence (n=783)

Drowsiness

9.1

5.6

Headache

8.5

9.1

Fatigue

4.8

4.7

Nervousness

4.6

8.2

Lethargy

4.5

3.4

Dizziness

4.5

3.3

Nausea

3.1

3.8

Hangover

2.5

1.1

Anxiety

2.0

1.5

Depression

1.7

1.8

Dry Mouth

1.7

2.2

Diarrhea

1.7

1.1

Abdominal Discomfort

1.5

1.9

Euphoria

1.5

0.4

Weakness

1.4

0.9

Confusion

1.3

0.5

Blurred Vision

1.3

1.3

Nightmares

1.2

1.7

Vertigo

1.2

0.8

The following adverse events have been reported less frequently (0.5% to 0.9%):

Central Nervous System – anorexia, ataxia, equilibrium loss, tremor, increased dreaming

Cardiovascular – dyspnea, palpitations

Gastrointestinal – vomiting

Musculoskeletal – backache

Special Senses – hyperhidrosis, burning eyes

Amnesia, hallucinations, horizontal nystagmus, and paradoxical reactions including restlessness, overstimulation and agitation were rare (less than 0.5%).

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Abuse is characterized by misuse of the drug for non-medical purposes, often in combination with other psychoactive substances. Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by a specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug and/or administration of an antagonist. Tolerance is a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a diminution of one or more of the drug’s effects over time. Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs and may develop at different rates for different effects.

Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving. Drug addiction is a treatable disease, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, but relapse is common.

Controlled Substance

Temazepam capsules are a controlled substance in Schedule IV.

Abuse and Dependence

Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol (convulsions, tremor, abdominal, and muscle cramps, vomiting, and sweating), have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Consequently, after extended therapy at doses higher than 15 mg, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed. As with any hypnotic, caution must be exercised in administering temazepam capsules to individuals known to be addiction-prone or to those whose history suggests they may increase the dosage on their own initiative. It is desirable to limit repeated prescriptions without adequate medical supervision.

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