Temazepam (Page 3 of 4)

Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions

Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including temazepam. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with temazepam should not be rechallenged with the drug.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Since the risk of the development of oversedation, dizziness, confusion, and/or ataxia increases substantially with larger doses of benzodiazepines in elderly and debilitated patients, 7.5 mg of temazepam is recommended as the initial dosage for such patients.

Temazepam should be administered with caution in severely depressed patients or those in whom there is any evidence of latent depression; it should be recognized that suicidal tendencies may be present and protective measures may be necessary.

The usual precautions should be observed in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function and in patients with chronic pulmonary insufficiency.

If temazepam is to be combined with other drugs having known hypnotic properties or CNS-depressant effects, consideration should be given to potential additive effects.

The possibility of a synergistic effect exists with the coadministration of temazepam and diphenhydramine. One case of stillbirth at term has been reported 8 hours after a pregnant patient received temazepam and diphenhydramine. A cause and effect relationship has not yet been determined ( see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Information for Patients

Advise the patient to read the FDA approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).

Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of potentially fatal respiratory depression and sedation when temazepam is used with opioids and not to use such drugs concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined ( see WARNINGS, Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioidsand PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

Abuse, Misuse, and Addiction

Inform patients that the use of temazepam, even at recommended dosages, exposes users to risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose and death, especially when used in combination with other medications (e.g., opioid analgesics), alcohol, and/or illicit substances. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of benzodiazepine abuse, misuse, and addiction; to seek medical help if they develop these signs and/or symptoms; and on the proper disposal of unused drug ( see WARNINGS, Abuse, Misuse, and Addictionand DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).

Withdrawal Reactions

Inform patients that the continued use of temazepam may lead to clinically significant physical dependence and that abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of temazepam may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening. Inform patients that in some cases, patients taking benzodiazepines have developed a protracted withdrawal syndrome with withdrawal symptoms lasting weeks to more than 12 months. Instruct patients that discontinuation or dosage reduction of temazepam may require a slow taper ( see WARNINGS, Dependence and Withdrawal Reactionsand DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).

“Sleep-Driving” and Other Complex Behaviors

There have been reports of people getting out of bed after taking a sedative-hypnotic and driving their cars while not fully awake, often with no memory of the event. If a patient experiences such an episode, it should be reported to his or her doctor immediately, since “sleep-driving” can be dangerous. This behavior is more likely to occur when temazepam is taken with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants ( see WARNINGS). Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with “sleep-driving”, patients usually do not remember these events.

Advise patients that increased drowsiness and decreased consciousness may increase the risk of falls in some patients.

Laboratory Tests

The usual precautions should be observed in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function and in patients with chronic pulmonary insufficiency. Abnormal liver function tests as well as blood dyscrasias have been reported with benzodiazepines.

Drug Interactions

The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation.

The pharmacokinetic profile of temazepam does not appear to be altered by orally administered cimetidine dosed according to labeling.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in rats at dietary temazepam doses up to 160 mg/kg/day for 24 months and in mice at dietary doses of 160 mg/kg/day for 18 months. No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed although hyperplastic liver nodules were observed in female mice exposed to the highest dose. The clinical significance of this finding is not known.

Fertility in male and female rats was not adversely affected by temazepam.

No mutagenicity tests have been done with temazepam.

Pregnancy

( see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when temazepam is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of temazepam did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy commonly observed in this population. Temazepam 7.5 mg is recommended as the initial dosage for patients aged 65 and over since the risk of the development of oversedation, dizziness, confusion, ataxia and/or falls increases substantially with larger doses of benzodiazepines in elderly and debilitated patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

During controlled clinical studies in which 1076 patients received temazepam at bedtime, the drug was well tolerated. Side effects were usually mild and transient. Adverse reactions occurring in 1% or more of patients are presented in the following table:

Temazepam
% Incidence (n=1076)
Placebo
% Incidence (n=783)
Drowsiness 9.1 5.6
Headache 8.5 9.1
Fatigue 4.8 4.7
Nervousness 4.6 8.2
Lethargy 4.5 3.4
Dizziness 4.5 3.3
Nausea 3.1 3.8
Hangover 2.5 1.1
Anxiety 2.0 1.5
Depression 1.7 1.8
Dry Mouth 1.7 2.2
Diarrhea 1.7 1.1
Abdominal Discomfort 1.5 1.9
Euphoria 1.5 0.4
Weakness 1.4 0.9
Confusion 1.3 0.5
Blurred Vision 1.3 1.3
Nightmares 1.2 1.7
Vertigo 1.2 0.8

The following adverse events have been reported less frequently (0.5% to 0.9%):

Central Nervous System – anorexia, ataxia, equilibrium loss, tremor, increased dreaming

Cardiovascular – dyspnea, palpitations

Gastrointestinal – vomiting

Musculoskeletal – backache

Special Senses – hyperhidrosis, burning eyes

Amnesia, hallucinations, horizontal nystagmus, and paradoxical reactions including restlessness, overstimulation and agitation were rare (less than 0.5%).

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact Teva at 1-888-838-2872 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or http://www.fda.gov/ for voluntary reporting of adverse reactions.

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