The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Because postmarketing reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Immune System Disorders
allergic reaction, including angioedema
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
lactic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia
Respiratory, Thoracic , and Mediastinal Disorders
pancreatitis, increased amylase, abdominal pain
hepatic steatosis, hepatitis, increased liver enzymes (most commonly AST, ALT gamma GT)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia (manifested as bone pain and which may contribute to fractures), muscular weakness, myopathy
Renal and Urinary Disorders
acute renal failure, renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, Fanconi syndrome, proximal renal tubulopathy, interstitial nephritis (including acute cases), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, renal insufficiency, increased creatinine, proteinuria, polyuria
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
The following adverse reactions, listed under the body system headings above, may occur as a consequence of proximal renal tubulopathy: rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia, hypokalemia, muscular weakness, myopathy, hypophosphatemia.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS contact AvKARE at 1-855-361-3993; email firstname.lastname@example.org; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Tenofovir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Coadministration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the coadministered drug. Some examples include, but are not limited to, acyclovir, cidofovir, ganciclovir, valacyclovir, valganciclovir, aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin), and high-dose or multiple NSAIDs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Drugs that decrease renal function may increase concentrations of tenofovir.
In the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate should not be administered in combination with adefovir dipivoxil.
Table 12 Established and Significant a Drug Interactions: Alteration in Dose or Regimen May Be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Trials
a. This table is not all inclusive.
b. t=lncrease, j=Decrease
|Concomitant Drug Class: Drug Name||Effect on Concentration b||Clinical Comment|
|NRTI: didanosine||t didanosine||Patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine should be monitored closely for didanosine-associated adverse reactions. Discontinue didanosine in patients who develop didanosine- associated adverse reactions. Higher didanosine concentrations could potentiate didanosine-associated adverse reactions, including pancreatitis, and neuropathy. Suppression of CD4+ cell counts has been observed in patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with didanosine 400 mg daily. In patients weighing greater than 60 kg, reduce the didanosine dose to 250 mg when it is coadministered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. In patients weighing less than 60 kg, reduce the didanosine dose to 200 mg when it is coadministered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. When coadministered, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Videx EC may be taken under fasted conditions or with a light meal (less than 400 kcal, 20% fat).|
|HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: atazanavir lopinavir/ritonavir atazanavir/ritonavir darunavir/ritonavir||j atazanavir t tenofovir||When coadministered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, atazanavir 300 mg should be given with ritonavir 100 mg. Monitor patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate concomitantly with lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, or ritonavir- boosted darunavir for TDF-associated adverse reactions. Discontinue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients who develop TDF-associated adverse reactions.|
|Hepatitis C Antiviral Agents: sofosbuvir/velpatasvir sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir ledipasvir/sofosbuvir||t tenofovir||Monitor patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate concomitantly with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for adverse reactions associated with TDF. Monitor patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate concomitantly with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir without an HIV-1 protease inhibitor/ritonavir or an HIV-1 protease inhibitor/cobicistat combination, for adverse reactions associated with TDF. In patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate concomitantly with HARVONI and an HIV-1 protease inhibitor/ritonavir or an HIV-1 protease inhibitor/cobicistat combination, consider an alternative HCV or antiretroviral therapy, as the safety of increased tenofovir concentrations in this setting has not been established. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for adverse reactions associated with TDF.|
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.
Available data from the APR show no increase in the overall risk of major birth defects with first trimester exposure for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (2.1%) compared with the background rate for major birth defects of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) (see Data). The rate of miscarriage for individual drugs is not reported in the APR. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 15–20%.
Published studies in HBV-infected subjects do not report an increased risk of adverse pregnancy- related outcomes with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate during the third trimester of pregnancy (see Data).
In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed when TDF was administered at doses/exposures ≥ 14 (TDF) and 2.7 (tenofovir) times those of the recommended daily dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (see Data).
Based on prospective reports from the APR exposures to TDF-containing regimens during pregnancy resulting in live births (including 3,342 exposed in the first trimester and 1,475 exposed in the second/third trimester), there was no increase in overall major birth defects with TDF compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of major birth defects in live births was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.8%) with first trimester exposure to TDF-containing regimens, and 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4% to 3.0%) with the second/third trimester exposure to TDF-containing regimens.
Prospective reports from the APR of overall major birth defects in pregnancies exposed to TDF are compared with a U.S. background major birth defect rate. Methodological limitations of the APR include the use of MACDP as the external comparator group. Limitations of using an external comparator include differences in methodology and populations, as well as confounding due to the underlying disease.
In published data from three controlled clinical trials, a total of 327 pregnant women with chronic HBV infection were administered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate from 28 to 32 weeks gestation through 1 to 2 months postpartum and followed for up to 12 months after delivery. There were no new safety findings in pregnant women compared with the known safety profile of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in HBV-infected adults. An increased risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes was not observed; 2 stillbirths were identified, and there was 1 major birth defect (talipes) and 1 occurrence of multiple congenital abnormalities (not further specified) in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate -exposed infants. Infants were followed for up to 12 months after delivery; there were no clinically relevant drug-related safety findings in infants exposed to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate during late gestation.
TDF was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 0, 50, 150, or 450 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (at 0, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day) through organogenesis (on gestation days 7 through 17, and 6 through 18, respectively). No significant toxicological effects were observed in embryo-fetal toxicity studies performed with TDF in rats at doses up to 14 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons and in rabbits at doses up to 19 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons. In a pre/postnatal development study in rats, TDF was administered orally through lactation at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day; no adverse effects were observed in the offspring at tenofovir exposures of approximately 2.7 times higher than human exposures at the recommended daily dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
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