TERBINAFINE- terbinafine hydrochloride tablet
Terbinafine tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenail or fingernail due to dermatophytes (tinea unguium).
Prior to initiating treatment, appropriate nail specimens for laboratory testing [potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation, fungal culture, or nail biopsy] should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis of onychomycosis.
Fingernail onychomycosis: One 250 mg tablet once daily for 6 weeks.
Toenail onychomycosis: One 250 mg tablet once daily for 12 weeks.
The optimal clinical effect is seen some months after mycological cure and cessation of treatment. This is related to the period required for outgrowth of healthy nail.
Terbinafine tablets, 250 mg are supplied as white, round, flat faced beveled edge tablets debossed with IG on one side and 209 on the other.
Terbinafine tablets are contraindicated in patients with:
• History of allergic reaction to oral terbinafine because of the risk of anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]
• Chronic or active liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Terbinafine tablets are contraindicated for patients with chronic or active liver disease. Before prescribing terbinafine tablets perform liver function tests because hepatotoxicity may occur in patients with and without preexisting liver disease. Cases of liver failure, some leading to liver transplant or death, have occurred with the use of terbinafine tablets in individuals with and without preexisting liver disease.
In the majority of liver cases reported in association with use of terbinafine tablets, the patients had serious underlying systemic conditions. The severity of hepatic events and/or their outcome may be worse in patients with active or chronic liver disease. Periodic monitoring of liver function tests is recommended. Discontinue terbinafine tablets, if biochemical or clinical evidence of liver injury develops.
Warn patients prescribed terbinafine tablets and/or their caregivers to report immediately to their healthcare providers any symptoms or signs of persistent nausea, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, right upper abdominal pain or jaundice, dark urine, or pale stools. Advise patients with these symptoms to discontinue taking oral terbinafine and immediately evaluate the patient’s liver function.
Taste disturbance, including taste loss, has been reported with the use of terbinafine tablets. It can be severe enough to result in decreased food intake, weight loss, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Taste disturbance may resolve within several weeks after discontinuation of treatment, but may be prolonged (greater than one year), or may be permanent. If symptoms of a taste disturbance occur, terbinafine tablets should be discontinued.
Smell disturbance, including loss of smell, has been reported with the use of terbinafine tablets. Smell disturbance may resolve after discontinuation of treatment, but may be prolonged (greater than one year), or may be permanent. If symptoms of a smell disturbance occur, terbinafine tablets should be discontinued.
Depressive symptoms have occurred during postmarketing use of terbinafine tablets. Prescribers should be alert to the development of depressive symptoms, and patients should be instructed to report depressive symptoms to their physician.
Transient decreases in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) have been observed in controlled clinical trials. In placebo-controlled trials, 8/465 subjects receiving terbinafine tablets (1.7%) and 3/137 subjects receiving placebo (2.2%) had decreases in ALC to below 1000/mm 3 on two or more occasions. In patients with known or suspected immunodeficiency, physicians should consider monitoring complete blood counts if treatment continues for more than six weeks. Cases of severe neutropenia have been reported. These were reversible upon discontinuation of terbinafine tablets, with or without supportive therapy. If clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of secondary infection occur, a complete blood count should be obtained. If the neutrophil count is less than or equal to 1,000 cells/mm 3 , terbinafine tablets should be discontinued and supportive management started.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious skin/hypersensitivity reactions [e.g., Stevens — Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, bullous dermatitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome]. Manifestations of DRESS syndrome may include cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more organ complications such as hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. If progressive skin rash or signs/symptoms of the above drug reactions occur, treatment with terbinafine tablets should be discontinued.
During postmarketing experience, precipitation and exacerbation of cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in patients taking terbinafine tablets. Terbinafine tablets should be discontinued in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of lupus erythematosus.
Cases of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome, some fatal, have been reported with terbinafine. Discontinue terbinafine if clinical symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with TMA occur. The findings of unexplained thrombocytopenia and anemia should prompt further evaluation and consideration of diagnosis of TMA.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most frequently reported adverse events observed in the three US/Canadian placebo-controlled trials are listed in the Table 1. The adverse events reported encompass gastrointestinal symptoms (including diarrhea, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain), liver test abnormalities, rashes, urticaria, pruritus, and taste disturbances. Changes in the ocular lens and retina have been reported following the use of terbinafine tablets in controlled trials. The clinical significance of these changes is unknown. In general, the adverse events were mild, transient, and did not lead to discontinuation from study participation.
Table 1. Most frequently reported adverse events observed in the 3 US/Canadian placebo-controlled trials
*Liver enzyme abnormalities greater than or equal to 2x the upper limit of normal range.
The following adverse events have been identified during post-approval use of terbinafine tablets. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, severe neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5, 5.8) ]
Immune system disorders: Serious hypersensitivity reactions e.g., angioedema and allergic reactions (including anaphylaxis), precipitation and exacerbation of cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7) ], serum sickness-like reaction
Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety and depressive symptoms independent of taste disturbance have been reported with use of terbinafine tablets. In some cases, depressive symptoms have been reported to subside with discontinuance of therapy and to recur with reinstitution of therapy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4) ]
Nervous system disorders: Cases of taste disturbance, including taste loss, have been reported with the use of terbinafine tablets. It can be severe enough to result in decreased food intake, weight loss, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Cases of smell disturbance, including smell loss, have been reported with the use of terbinafine tablets [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3) ]. Cases of paresthesia and hypoesthesia have been reported with the use of terbinafine tablets.
Eye disorders: Visual field defects, reduced visual acuity
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Hearing impairment, vertigo, tinnitus
Vascular disorders: Vasculitis
Gastrointestinal disorders: Pancreatitis, vomiting
Hepatobiliary disorders: Cases of liver failure some leading to liver transplant or death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ], idiosyncratic and symptomatic hepatic injury. Cases of hepatitis, cholestasis, and increased hepatic enzymes [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)] have been seen with the use of terbinafine tablets.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Serious skin reactions [e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, bullous dermatitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome] [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)], acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, psoriasiform eruptions or exacerbation of psoriasis, photosensitivity reactions, hair loss
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Rhabdomyolysis, arthralgia, myalgia
General disorders and administration site conditions: Malaise, fatigue, influenza-like illness, pyrexia
Investigations: Altered prothrombin time (prolongation and reduction) in patients concomitantly treated with warfarin and increased blood creatine phosphokinase have been reported.
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