TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE

TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE- tetracycline hydrochloride capsule
Strides Pharma Science Limited

DESCRIPTION

Tetracycline is a yellow, odorless, crystalline powder. Tetracycline is stable in air but exposure to strong sunlight causes it to darken. Its potency is affected in solutions of pH below 2 and is rapidly destroyed by alkali hydroxide solutions. Tetracycline is very slightly soluble in water, freely soluble in dilute acid and in alkali hydroxide solutions, sparingly soluble in alcohol, and practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether. The chemical name for tetracycline hydrochloride is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12,-12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecar-boxamide monohydrochloride. Its structural formula is as follows:

structural formula
(click image for full-size original)

structural formula

Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 250 mg or 500 mg tetracycline hydrochloride.

Inactive Ingredients: Lactose Monohydrate, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Sodium Starch Glycolate, Pregelatinised Starch and Magnesium Stearate.

The 250 mg and 500 mg capsule shells contain D&C yellow no. 10, FD&C blue no. 1, FD&C yellow no. 6, gelatin, and titanium dioxide.

The imprinting ink for the 250 mg and 500 mg capsules contains Shellac, Black Iron Oxide and Potassium Hydroxide.

USP Dissolution Test 2.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma protein in varying degrees. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations in a biologically active form.

Microbiology

Tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Tetracycline is active against a broad range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. The drugs in the tetracycline class have closely similar antimicrobial spectra, and cross-resistance among them is common.

Tetracycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert.

Gram-negative Bacteria

Acinetobacter species

Bartonella bacilliformis

Brucella species

Campylobacter fetus

Enterobacter aerogenes

Escherichia coli

Francisella tularensis

Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella species

Klebsiella granulomatis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Shigella species

Vibrio cholerae

Yersinia pestis

Gram-positive Bacteria

Bacillus anthracis

Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Staphylococcus aureus

Listeria monocytogenes

Anaerobes

Bacteroides species

Clostridium species

Fusobacterium fusiforme

Propionibacterium acnes

Other Bacteria

Actinomyces species

Borrelia recurrentis

Chlamydophila psittaci

Chlamydia trachomatis

Rickettsiae

Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue

Parasites

Entamoeba species

Balantidium coli

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of tetracycline hydrochloride and other antibacterial drugs, tetracycline hydrochloride should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Tetracycline is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below:

  • Upper respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes , Streptococcus pneumoniae andHemophilus influenzae. Note: Tetracycline should not be used for streptococcal disease unless the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible.
  • Lower respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Eaton agent, and Klebsiella sp.)
  • Skin and soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes , Staphylococcus aureaus. (Tetracyclines are not the drugs of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infections.)
  • Infections caused by rickettsia including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus group infections, Q fever, rickettsialpox.
  • Psittacosis caused by Chlamydophila psittaci.
  • Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis such as uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections, inclusion conjunctivitis, trachoma, and lymphogranuloma venereum.
  • Granuloma inquinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.
  • Relapsing fever caused by Borrelia sp.
  • Bartonellosis caused by Bartonella bacilliformis.
  • Chancroid caused by Hemophilus ducreyi.
  • Tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis.
  • Plaque caused by Yersinia pestis.
  • Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.
  • Brucellosis caused by Brucella species (tetracycline may be used in conjunction with an aminoglycoside).
  • Infections due to Campylobacter fetus.
  • As adjunctive therapy in intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica.
  • Urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella , etc.
  • Other infections caused by susceptible gram-negative organisms such as E. coli , Enterobacter aerogenes , Shigella sp., Acinetobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., and Bacteroides sp.
  • In severe acne, adjunctive therapy with tetracycline may be useful.

When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracyclines are alternative drugs in the treatment of the following infections:

  • Syphilis and yaws caused by Treponema pallidum and pertenue , respectively,
  • Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme ,
  • Infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae,
  • Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis,
  • Infections due to Listeria monocytogenes,
  • Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces species,
  • Infections due to Clostridium species.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

WARNINGS

Tooth Development

The use of drugs of the tetracycline-class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Tetracycline drugs should not be used in this age group, except for anthrax, unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated.

Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including tetracyclines, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drugs. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing use of antibacterial drugs not directed against C. difficile need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile , and institute surgical evaluation clinically indicated.

Photosensitivity

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Advise patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet lights that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs. Discontinue treatment at the first evidence of skin erythema.

Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and tetracycline should be avoided because isotretinoin, a systemic retinoid, is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolve after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

Skeletal Development

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus. Tetracycline drugs should not be used during pregnancy unless absolutely necessary.

Antianabolic Action

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired renal function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia and acidosis.

Laboratory Monitoring for Long-Term Therapy

In long-term therapy, perform periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal and hepatic studies. If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, lower than usual total doses are indicated, and, if therapy is prolonged, serum level determinations of the drug may be advisable.

Page 1 of 3 1 2 3

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2021. All Rights Reserved.