Tigecycline (Page 4 of 8)

6.2 Post-Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of tigecycline. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish causal relationship to drug exposure.

  • anaphylactic reactions
  • acute pancreatitis
  • hepatic cholestasis, and jaundice
  • severe skin reactions, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  • symptomatic hypoglycemia in patients with and without diabetes mellitus
  • hypofibrinogenemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]


7.1 Warfarin

Prothrombin time or other suitable anticoagulation test should be monitored if tigecycline is administered with warfarin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.2 Calcineurin Inhibitors

Concomitant use of tigecycline and calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus or cyclosporine may lead to an increase in serum trough concentrations of the calcineurin inhibitors. Therefore, serum concentrations of the calcineurin inhibitor should be monitored during treatment with tigecycline to avoid drug toxicity.

7.3 Oral Contraceptives

Concurrent use of antibacterial drugs with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.


8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Tigecycline, like other tetracycline class antibacterial drugs, may cause permanent discoloration of deciduous teeth and reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8), Data, and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. There are no available data on the risk of major birth defects or miscarriage following the use of tigecycline during pregnancy. Administration of intravenous tigecycline in pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis was associated with reduction in fetal weights and an increased incidence of skeletal anomalies (delays in bone ossification) at exposures of 5 and 1 times the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose in rats and rabbits, respectively. Advise the patient of the potential risk to the fetus if tigecycline is used during the second or third trimester.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U. S. general population, the estimated background risk in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.


Human Data

The use of tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs, that includes tigecycline, during tooth development (second and third trimester of pregnancy) may cause permanent discoloration of deciduous teeth. This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of tetracyclines but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Tigecycline may cause reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours.

Animal Data

In embryo-fetal development studies, tigecycline was administered during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 12 mg/kg/day in rats and 4 mg/kg in rabbits or 5 and 1 times the systemic exposure at the recommended clinical dose, respectively. In the rat study, decreased fetal weight and fetal skeletal variations (reduced ossification of the pubic, ischial, and supraoccipital bones and increased incidences of rudimentary 14th rib) were observed in the presence of maternal toxicity at 12 mg/kg/day (5 times the recommended clinical dose based on systemic exposure). In rabbits, decreased fetal weights were observed in the presence of maternal toxicity at 4 mg/kg (equivalent to the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose).

In preclinical safety studies, 14 C-labeled tigecycline crossed the placenta and was found in fetal tissues.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of tigecycline in human milk; however, tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs are present in breast milk. It is not known whether tigecycline has an effect on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Tigecycline has low oral bioavailability; therefore, infant exposure is expected to be low. Tigecycline is present in rat milk with little or no systemic exposure to tigecycline in nursing pups as a result of exposure via maternal milk. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for tigecycline and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from tigecycline or from the underlying maternal condition (see Clinical Considerations).

Clinical Considerations

Because of the theoretical risk of dental discoloration and inhibition of bone growth, avoid breastfeeding if taking tigecycline for longer than three weeks. A lactating woman may also consider interrupting breastfeeding and pumping and discarding breastmilk during administration of tigecycline and for 9 days (approximately 5 half-lives) after the last dose in order to minimize drug exposure to a breastfed infant.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Use in patients under 18 years of age is not recommended. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Because of the increased mortality observed in tigecycline-treated adult patients in clinical trials, pediatric trials of tigecycline to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tigecycline were not conducted.

In situations where there are no other alternative antibacterial drugs, dosing has been proposed for pediatric patients 8 to 17 years of age based on data from pediatric pharmacokinetic studies [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Because of effects on tooth development, use in patients under 8 years of age is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects who received tigecycline in Phase 3 clinical studies (n=2514), 664 were 65 and over, while 288 were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity to adverse events of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

No significant difference in tigecycline exposure was observed between healthy elderly subjects and younger subjects following a single 100 mg dose of tigecycline [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustment is warranted in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh A and Child Pugh B). In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C), the initial dose of tigecycline should be 100 mg followed by a reduced maintenance dose of 25 mg every 12 hours. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh C) should be treated with caution and monitored for treatment response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.2)].


No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with tigecycline. Intravenous administration of tigecycline at a single dose of 300 mg over 60 minutes in healthy volunteers resulted in an increased incidence of nausea and vomiting. Tigecycline is not removed in significant quantities by hemodialysis.


Tigecycline is a tetracycline class antibacterial for intravenous infusion. The chemical name of tigecycline is (4S ,4aS ,5aR ,12aS)-9-[2-(tert -butylamino)acetamido]-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide. The empirical formula is C29 H39 N5 O8 and the molecular weight is 585.65.

The following represents the chemical structure of tigecycline:

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)
Figure 1: Structure of Tigecycline

Tigecycline for Injection, USP is an orange lyophilized cake or powder. Each Tigecycline for Injection, USP single-dose 10 mL vial contains 50 mg tigecycline lyophilized powder for reconstitution for intravenous infusion and 100 mg of lactose monohydrate. The pH is adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and if necessary sodium hydroxide. The product does not contain preservatives.

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