In the supraventricular arrhythmia population (patients with AF and other supraventricular arrhythmias), the overall incidence of Torsade de Pointes was 0.8%. The frequency of TdP by dose is shown in Table 4. There were no cases of TdP on placebo.
|<250 mcg BID||250 mcg BID||>250–500 mcg BID||>500 mcg BID||All Doses|
|Number of Patients||217||388||703||38||1346|
|Torsade de Pointes||0||1 (0.3%)||6 (0.9%)||4 (10.5%)||11 (0.8%)|
As shown in Table 5, the rate of TdP was reduced when patients were dosed according to their renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations, Renal Impairment and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
|Population:||n/N %||n/N %||n/N %|
|Supraventricular Arrhythmias||11/1346 (0.8%)||6/193 (3.1%)||5/1153 (0.4%)|
|DIAMOND CHF||25/762 (3.3%)||7/148 (4.7%)||18/614 (2.9%)|
|DIAMOND MI||7/749 (0.9%)||3/101 (3.0%)||4/648 (0.6%)|
|DIAMOND AF||4/249 (1.6%)||0/43 (0%)||4/206 (1.9%)|
The majority of the episodes of TdP occurred within the first three days of TIKOSYN therapy (10/11 events in the studies of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias; 19/25 and 4/7 events in DIAMOND CHF and DIAMOND MI, respectively; 2/4 events in the DIAMOND AF subpopulation).
In a pooled survival analysis of patients in the supraventricular arrhythmia population (low prevalence of structural heart disease), deaths occurred in 0.9% (12/1346) of patients receiving TIKOSYN and 0.4% (3/677) in the placebo group. Adjusted for duration of therapy, primary diagnosis, age, gender, and prevalence of structural heart disease, the point estimate of the hazard ratio for the pooled studies (TIKOSYN/placebo) was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.3, 4.3). The DIAMOND CHF and MI trials examined mortality in patients with structural heart disease (ejection fraction ≤35%). In these large, double-blind studies, deaths occurred in 36% (541/1511) of TIKOSYN patients and 37% (560/1517) of placebo patients. In an analysis of 506 DIAMOND patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter at baseline, one year mortality on TIKOSYN was 31% vs. 32% on placebo (see CLINICAL STUDIES).
Because of the small number of events, an excess mortality due to TIKOSYN cannot be ruled out with confidence in the pooled survival analysis of placebo-controlled trials in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias. However, it is reassuring that in two large placebo-controlled mortality studies in patients with significant heart disease (DIAMOND CHF/MI), there were no more deaths in TIKOSYN-treated patients than in patients given placebo (see CLINICAL STUDIES).
Because there is a linear relationship between dofetilide plasma concentration and QTc, concomitant drugs that interfere with the metabolism or renal elimination of dofetilide may increase the risk of arrhythmia (Torsade de Pointes). TIKOSYN is metabolized to a small degree by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme of the cytochrome P450 system and an inhibitor of this system could increase systemic dofetilide exposure. More important, dofetilide is eliminated by cationic renal secretion, and three inhibitors of this process have been shown to increase systemic dofetilide exposure. The magnitude of the effect on renal elimination by cimetidine, trimethoprim, and ketoconazole (all contraindicated concomitant uses with dofetilide) suggests that all renal cation transport inhibitors should be contraindicated.
Hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia may occur with administration of potassium-depleting diuretics, increasing the potential for Torsade de Pointes. Potassium levels should be within the normal range prior to administration of TIKOSYN and maintained in the normal range during administration of TIKOSYN (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
The use of TIKOSYN in conjunction with other drugs that prolong the QT interval has not been studied and is not recommended. Such drugs include phenothiazines, cisapride, bepridil, tricyclic antidepressants, certain oral macrolides, and certain fluoroquinolones. Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic agents should be withheld for at least three half-lives prior to dosing with TIKOSYN. In clinical trials, TIKOSYN was administered to patients previously treated with oral amiodarone only if serum amiodarone levels were below 0.3 mg/L or amiodarone had been withdrawn for at least three months.
The overall systemic clearance of dofetilide is decreased and plasma concentration increased with decreasing creatinine clearance. The dose of TIKOSYN must be adjusted based on creatinine clearance (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Patients undergoing dialysis were not included in clinical studies, and appropriate dosing recommendations for these patients are unknown. There is no information about the effectiveness of hemodialysis in removing dofetilide from plasma.
After adjustment for creatinine clearance, no additional dose adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been studied. TIKOSYN should be used with particular caution in these patients.
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