TIMOLOL MALEATE- timolol maleate solution/ drops
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent indicated in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
One drop of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% should be administered in the affected eye(s) once a day in the AM.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Topical ophthalmic solution containing 5 mg/mL timolol (6.8 mg/mL of timolol maleate).
4.1 Asthma, COPD
Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% is contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma; a history of bronchial asthma; severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3)].
4.2 Sinus Bradycardia, AV Block, Cardiac Failure, Cardiogenic Shock
Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% is contraindicated in patients with sinus bradycardia; second or third degree atrioventricular block; overt cardiac failure; cardiogenic shock [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
4.3 Hypersensitivity Reactions
Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% is contraindicated in patients who have exhibited a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of this product in the past.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Potentiation of Respiratory Reactions Including Asthma
Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% contains timolol maleate; and although administered topically, it can be absorbed systemically. Therefore, the same adverse reactions found with systemic administration of beta-adrenergic blocking agents may occur with topical administration. For example, severe respiratory reactions and cardiac reactions including death due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma, and rarely death in association with cardiac failure, have been reported following systemic or ophthalmic administration of timolol maleate [see Contraindications (4.1)].
5.2 Cardiac Failure
Sympathetic stimulation may be essential for support of the circulation in individuals with diminished myocardial contractility, and its inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade may precipitate more severe failure.
In patients without a history of cardiac failure, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of cardiac failure, Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% should be discontinued [see Contraindications (4.2)].
5.3 Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g., chronic bronchitis, emphysema) of mild or moderate severity, bronchospastic disease, or a history of bronchospastic disease [other than bronchial asthma or a history of bronchial asthma in which Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% is contraindicated] should, in general, not receive beta-blocking agents, including Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% [see Contraindications (4.1)].
5.4 Increased Reactivity to Allergens
While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of atopy or a history of severe anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic challenge with such allergens. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat anaphylactic reactions.
5.5 Potentiation of Muscle Weakness
Beta-adrenergic blockade has been reported to potentiate muscle weakness consistent with certain myasthenic symptoms (e.g., diplopia, ptosis, and generalized weakness). Timolol has been reported rarely to increase muscle weakness in some patients with myasthenia gravis or myasthenic symptoms.
5.6 Masking of Hypoglycemic Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents should be administered with caution in patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia or to diabetic patients (especially those with labile diabetes) who are receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents may mask the signs and symptoms of acute hypoglycemia.
5.7 Masking of Thyrotoxicosis
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents may mask certain clinical signs (e.g., tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Patients suspected of developing thyrotoxicosis should be managed carefully to avoid abrupt withdrawal of beta-adrenergic blocking agents that might precipitate a thyroid storm.
5.8 Contamination of Topical Ophthalmic Products After Use
There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multidose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
5.9 Impairment of Beta-adrenergically Mediated Reflexes During Surgery
The necessity or desirability of withdrawal of beta-adrenergic blocking agents prior to major surgery is controversial. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade impairs the ability of the heart to respond to beta-adrenergically mediated reflex stimuli. This may augment the risk of general anesthesia in surgical procedures. Some patients receiving beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents have experienced protracted severe hypotension during anesthesia. Difficulty in restarting and maintaining the heartbeat has also been reported. For these reasons, in patients undergoing elective surgery, some authorities recommend gradual withdrawal of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents. If necessary during surgery, the effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents may be reversed by sufficient doses of adrenergic agonists.
5.10 Angle-Closure Glaucoma
In patients with angle-closure glaucoma, the immediate objective of treatment is to reopen the angle. This may require constricting the pupil. Timolol maleate has little or no effect on the pupil. Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% should not be used alone in the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma.
5.11 Cerebrovascular Insufficiency
Because of potential effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on blood pressure and pulse, these agents should be used with caution in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency. If signs or symptoms suggesting reduced cerebral blood flow develop following initiation of therapy with Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5%, alternative therapy should be considered.
5.12 Choroidal Detachment
Choroidal detachment after filtration procedures has been reported with the administration of aqueous suppressant therapy (e.g., timolol).
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions have been burning and stinging upon instillation in 38% of patients treated with Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5%. Additional reactions reported with Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% at a frequency of 4 to 10% include: blurred vision, cataract, conjunctival injection, headache, hypertension, infection, itching and decreased visual acuity.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported less frequently with ocular administration of this or other timolol maleate formulations.
Timolol (Ocular Administration)
Body as a Whole: Asthenia/fatigue and chest pain; Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, syncope, heart block, cerebral vascular accident, cerebral ischemia, cardiac failure, worsening of angina pectoris, palpitation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, edema, claudication, Raynaud’s phenomenon and cold hands and feet; Digestive: Nausea, diarrhea, dyspepsia, anorexia, and dry mouth; Immunologic: Systemic lupus erythematosus; Nervous System/Psychiatric: Dizziness, increase in signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis, paresthesia, somnolence, insomnia, nightmares, behavioral changes and psychic disturbances including depression, confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, disorientation, nervousness and memory loss; Skin: Alopecia and psoriasiform rash or exacerbation of psoriasis; Hypersensitivity: Signs and symptoms of systemic allergic reactions, including angioedema, urticaria, and localized and generalized rash; Respiratory: Bronchospasm (predominantly in patients with pre-existing bronchospastic disease), respiratory failure, dyspnea, nasal congestion, cough and upper respiratory infections; Endocrine: Masked symptoms of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]; Special Senses: Signs and symptoms of ocular irritation including conjunctivitis, blepharitis, keratitis, ocular pain, discharge (e.g., crusting), foreign body sensation, itching and tearing, and dry eyes; ptosis, decreased corneal sensitivity; cystoid macular edema; visual disturbances including refractive changes and diplopia; pseudopemphigoid; choroidal detachment following filtration surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]; Urogenital: Retroperitoneal fibrosis, decreased libido, impotence, and Peyronie’s disease.
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