Based on drug interaction trial results, the following drugs can be coadministered with dolutegravir without a dose adjustment: atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, daclatasvir, elbasvir/grazoprevir, methadone, midazolam, omeprazole, oral contraceptives containing norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol, prednisone, rifabutin, rilpivirine, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, and tenofovir [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in individuals exposed to TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.
Data from an ongoing birth outcome surveillance study has identified an increased risk of neural tube defects when dolutegravir is administered at the time of conception. As defects related to closure of the neural tube occur from conception through the first 6 weeks of gestation, embryos exposed to dolutegravir from the time of conception through the first 6 weeks of gestation are at potential risk.
Advise adolescents and adults of childbearing potential, including those actively trying to become pregnant, of the potential risk of neural tube defects with use of TIVICAY and TIVICAY PD. Assess the risks and benefits of TIVICAY and TIVICAY PD and discuss with the patient to determine if an alternative treatment should be considered at the time of conception through the first trimester of pregnancy or if pregnancy is confirmed in the first trimester. A benefit-risk assessment should consider factors such as feasibility of switching to another antiretroviral regimen, tolerability, ability to maintain viral suppression, and risk of HIV-1 transmission to the infant against the risk of neural tube defects associated with in utero dolutegravir exposure during critical periods of fetal development [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
There are insufficient human data on the use of dolutegravir during pregnancy to definitively assess a drug-associated risk for birth defects and miscarriage. The background risk for major birth defects for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background rate for major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of adverse developmental outcomes was observed with dolutegravir at systemic exposures (AUC) less than (rabbits) and approximately 27 times (rats) the exposure in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of TIVICAY (see Data).
Human Data: In a birth outcome surveillance study in Botswana, there were 7 cases of neural tube defects reported out of 3,591 deliveries (0.19%) to women who were exposed to dolutegravir-containing regimens at the time of conception. In comparison, the neural tube defect prevalence rates were 0.11% (21/19,361 deliveries) in the non-dolutegravir arm and 0.07% (87/119,630 deliveries) in the HIV-uninfected arm. Seven cases reported with dolutegravir included 3 cases of myelomeningocele, 2 cases of encephalocele, and one case each of anencephaly and iniencephaly. In the same study, no increased risk of neural tube defects was identified in women who started dolutegravir during pregnancy. Two infants out of 4,448 (0.04%) deliveries to women who started dolutegravir during pregnancy had a neural tube defect, compared with 5 infants out of 6,748 (0.07%) deliveries to women who started non-dolutegravir-containing regimens during pregnancy. The reported risks of neural tube defects by treatment groups were based on interim analyses from the ongoing surveillance study in Botswana. It is unknown if baseline characteristics were balanced between the study treatment groups. The observed trends of association could change as data accumulate.
Data analyzed to date from other sources including the APR, clinical trials, and postmarketing data are insufficient to definitively address the risk of neural tube defects with dolutegravir.
Data from the birth outcome surveillance study described above and postmarketing sources with more than 1,000 pregnancy outcomes from second and third trimester exposure in pregnant women indicate no evidence of increased risk of adverse birth outcomes.
Based on prospective reports to the APR of 842 exposures to dolutegravir during pregnancy resulting in live births (including 512 exposed in the first trimester), the prevalence of defects in live births was 3.3% (95% CI: 1.9% to 5.3%) following first-trimester exposure to dolutegravir-containing regimens and 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8% to 7.8%) following second-/third-trimester exposure to dolutegravir-containing regimens. In the U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), the background birth defect rate was 2.7%.
Animal Data: Dolutegravir was administered orally at up to 1,000 mg per kg daily to pregnant rats and rabbits on Gestation Days 6 to 17 and 6 to 18, respectively, and to rats on Gestation Day 6 to Lactation/Postpartum Day 20. No adverse effects on embryo-fetal (rats and rabbits) or pre/postnatal (rats) development were observed at up to the highest dose tested. During organogenesis, systemic exposures (AUC) to dolutegravir in rabbits were less than the exposure in humans at the MRHD and in rats were approximately 27 times the exposure in humans at the MRHD. In the rat pre/postnatal development study, decreased body weight of the developing offspring was observed during lactation at a maternally toxic dose (approximately 27 times human exposure at the MRHD).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV‑1–infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection.
It is not known whether dolutegravir is present in human breast milk, affects human milk production, or has effects on the breastfed infant. When administered to lactating rats, dolutegravir was present in milk (see Data).
Because of the potential for (1) HIV‑1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant similar to those seen in adults, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving dolutegravir.
Animal Data: Dolutegravir was the primary drug-related component excreted into the milk of lactating rats following a single oral dose of 50 mg per kg on Lactation Day 10, with milk concentrations of up to approximately 1.3 times that of maternal plasma concentrations observed 8 hours postdose.
In adolescents and adults of childbearing potential currently on TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD who are actively trying to become pregnant or if pregnancy is confirmed in the first trimester, assess the risks and benefits of continuing TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD and discuss with the patient if an alternative treatment should be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Pregnancy testing is recommended in adolescents and adults of childbearing potential before initiation of TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Adolescents and adults of childbearing potential who are taking TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD should be counseled on the consistent use of effective contraception.
The safety, pharmacokinetics, and effectiveness of TIVICAY and TIVICAY PD were evaluated in 75 HIV-1–infected, treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced, INSTI-naïve pediatric and adolescent subjects aged 4 weeks to less than 18 years weighing at least 3 kg in an ongoing, open-label, multicenter, dose-finding clinical trial, IMPAACT P1093 [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.3)]. Additional pharmacokinetics data were evaluated in 2 pharmacokinetic substudies in ODYSSEY, an ongoing open-label, randomized, non-inferiority trial to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic parameters of TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD plus two NRTIs compared with standard of care in HIV-1–infected pediatric subjects younger than 18 years [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Overall, the safety data in pediatric subjects from the IMPAACT P1093 trial were comparable to those observed in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The pharmacokinetic parameters of TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD in pediatric subjects from IMPAACT P1093 and ODYSSEY were comparable to those of adults receiving 50 mg once daily or twice daily [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The effectiveness observed in IMPAACT P1093 is comparable to that of treatment-experienced adult subjects.
Safety and effectiveness of TIVICAY or TIVICAY PD have not been established in pediatric patients aged less than 4 weeks or weighing less than 3 kg or in any pediatric patients who are INSTI-experienced with documented or clinically suspected resistance to other INSTIs (e.g., raltegravir, elvitegravir).
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