TIZANIDINE- tizanidine hydrochloride tablet
Tizanidine is a central alpha-2-adrenergic agonist indicated for the management of spasticity. Because of the short duration of therapeutic effect, treatment with tizanidine should be reserved for those daily activities and times when relief of spasticity is most important [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Tizanidine tablets may be prescribed with or without food. Once the formulation has been selected and the decision to take with or without food has been made, this regimen should not be altered.
Food has complex effects on tizanidine pharmacokinetics, which differ with the different formulations. Tizanidine capsules and tizanidine tablets are bioequivalent to each other under fasting conditions (more than 3 hours after a meal), but not under fed conditions (within 30 minutes of a meal). These pharmacokinetic differences may result in clinically significant differences when switching administration of tablet and capsules and when switching administration between the fed or fasted state. These changes may result in increased adverse events, or delayed or more rapid onset of activity, depending upon the nature of the switch. For this reason, the prescriber should be thoroughly familiar with the changes in kinetics associated with these different conditions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The recommended starting dose is 2 mg. Because the effect of tizanidine peaks at approximately 1 to 2 hours post-dose and dissipates between 3 to 6 hours post-dose, treatment can be repeated at 6 to 8 hour intervals, as needed, to a maximum of three doses in 24 hours.
Dosage can be gradually increased by 2 mg to 4 mg at each dose, with 1 to 4 days between dosage increases, until a satisfactory reduction of muscle tone is achieved. The total daily dose should not exceed 36 mg. Single doses greater than 16 mg have not been studied.
Tizanidine should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 25 mL/min), as clearance is reduced by more than 50%. In these patients, during titration, the individual doses should be reduced. If higher doses are required, individual doses rather than dosing frequency should be increased [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Tizanidine should be used with caution in patients with any hepatic impairment. In these patients, during titration, the individual doses should be reduced. If higher doses are required, individual doses rather than dosing frequency should be increased. Monitoring of aminotransferase levels is recommended for baseline and 1 month after maximum dose is achieved, or if hepatic injury is suspected [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
If therapy needs to be discontinued, particularly in patients who have been receiving high doses (20 mg to 36 mg daily) for long periods (9 weeks or more) or who may be on concomitant treatment with narcotics, the dose should be decreased slowly (2 mg to 4 mg per day) to minimize the risk of withdrawal and rebound hypertension, tachycardia, and hypertonia [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Tablets 2 mg — white to off-white, round, scored tablets, imprinted “APO” over “TI-2” on one side and plain with a bisect score on the other side.
4 mg- white to off-white, round, scored tablets, imprinted “APO” over “TI-4” on one side and plain with a quadrisect score on the other side.
Tizanidine is an α2 -adrenergic agonist that can produce hypotension. Syncope has been reported in the post marketing setting. The chance of significant hypotension may possibly be minimized by titration of the dose and by focusing attention on signs and symptoms of hypotension prior to dose advancement. In addition, patients moving from a supine to fixed upright position may be at increased risk for hypotension and orthostatic effects.
Monitor for hypotension when tizanidine is used in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive therapy. It is not recommended that tizanidine be used with other α2 -adrenergic agonists. Clinically significant hypotension (decreases in both systolic and diastolic pressure) has been reported with concomitant administration of either fluvoxamine or ciprofloxacin and single doses of 4 mg of tizanidine. Therefore, concomitant use of tizanidine with fluvoxamine or with ciprofloxacin, potent inhibitors of CYP1A2, is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4) and Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.2)].
Tizanidine may cause hepatocellular liver injury. Tizanidine should be used with caution in patients with any hepatic impairment. Monitoring of aminotransferase levels is recommended for baseline and 1 month after maximum dose is achieved, or if hepatic injury is suspected [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Tizanidine can cause sedation, which may interfere with everyday activity. In the multiple dose studies, the prevalence of patients with sedation peaked following the first week of titration and then remained stable for the duration of the maintenance phase of the study. The CNS depressant effects of tizanidine with alcohol and other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants) may be additive. Monitor patients who take tizanidine with another CNS depressant for symptoms of excess sedation [see Drug Interactions (7.5, 7.6)].
Tizanidine use has been associated with hallucinations. Formed, visual hallucinations or delusions have been reported in 5 of 170 patients (3%) in two North American controlled clinical studies. Most of the patients were aware that the events were unreal. One patient developed psychosis in association with the hallucinations. One patient among these 5 continued to have problems for at least 2 weeks following discontinuation of tizanidine. Consider discontinuing tizanidine in patients who develop hallucinations.
Because of potential drug interactions, tizanidine is contraindicated in patients taking potent CYP1A2 inhibitors, such as fluvoxamine or ciprofloxacin. Adverse reactions such as hypotension, bradycardia, or excessive drowsiness can occur when tizanidine is taken with other CYP1A2 inhibitors, such as zileuton, fluoroquinolones other than ciprofloxacin (which is contraindicated), antiarrythmics (amiodarone, mexiletine, propafenone), cimetidine, famotidine, oral contraceptives, acyclovir, and ticlopidine). Concomitant use should be avoided unless the necessity for tizanidine therapy is clinically evident. In such a case, use with caution [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
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