TOBI Podhaler

TOBI PODHALER- tobramycin capsule
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

TOBI Podhaler is indicated for the management of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Safety and efficacy have not been demonstrated in patients under the age of 6 years, patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) <25% or >80% predicted, or patients colonized with Burkholderia cepacia [see Clinical Studies (14)].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

DO NOT SWALLOW TOBI PODHALER CAPSULES

FOR USE WITH THE PODHALER DEVICE ONLY

FOR ORAL INHALATION ONLY

TOBI Podhaler capsules must not be swallowed as the intended effects in the lungs will not be obtained. The contents of TOBI Podhaler capsules are only for oral inhalation and should only be used with the Podhaler device.

The recommended dosage of TOBI Podhaler for both adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older is the inhalation of the contents of four 28 mg TOBI Podhaler capsules twice-daily for 28 days using the Podhaler device.

Refer to the Instructions For Use (IFU) for full administration information.

Dosage is not adjusted by weight. Each dose of four capsules should be taken as close to 12 hours apart as possible; each dose should not be taken less than 6 hours apart.

TOBI Podhaler is administered twice-daily in alternating periods of 28 days. After 28 days of therapy, patients should stop TOBI Podhaler therapy for the next 28 days, and then resume therapy for the next 28-day on and 28-day off cycle.

TOBI Podhaler capsules should always be stored in the blister and each capsule should only be removed IMMEDIATELY BEFORE USE.

For patients taking several different inhaled medications and/or performing chest physiotherapy, the order of therapies should follow the physician’s recommendation. It is recommended that TOBI Podhaler is taken last.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Inhalation powder:

28 mg: clear, colorless hypromellose capsule with “NVR AVCI” in blue radial imprint on one part of the capsule and the Novartis logo “Novartis Logo” in blue radial imprint on the other part of the capsule.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

TOBI Podhaler is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any aminoglycoside.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Bronchospasm

Bronchospasm has been reported with inhalation of TOBI Podhaler [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Bronchospasm should be treated as medically appropriate.

5.2 Ototoxicity

Caution should be exercised when prescribing TOBI Podhaler to patients with known or suspected auditory or vestibular dysfunction.

Ototoxicity, as measured by complaints of hearing loss or tinnitus, was reported by patients in the TOBI Podhaler clinical studies [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Tinnitus may be a sentinel symptom of ototoxicity, and therefore the onset of this symptom warrants caution. Ototoxicity, manifested as both auditory (hearing loss) and vestibular toxicity, has been reported with parenteral aminoglycosides. Vestibular toxicity may be manifested by vertigo, ataxia or dizziness.

5.3 Nephrotoxicity

Caution should be exercised when prescribing TOBI Podhaler to patients with known or suspected renal dysfunction.

Nephrotoxicity was not observed during TOBI Podhaler clinical studies but has been associated with aminoglycosides as a class.

5.4 Neuromuscular Disorders

Caution should be exercised when prescribing TOBI Podhaler to patients with known or suspected neuromuscular dysfunction.

TOBI Podhaler should be used cautiously in patients with neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis or Parkinson’s disease, since aminoglycosides may aggravate muscle weakness because of a potential curare-like effect on neuromuscular function.

5.5 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycosides cross the placenta, and streptomycin has been associated with several reports of total, irreversible, bilateral congenital deafness in pediatric patients exposed in utero. However, systemic absorption of tobramycin following inhaled administration is expected to be minimal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients who use TOBI Podhaler during pregnancy, or become pregnant while taking TOBI Podhaler should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

5.6 Concomitant Use of Systemic Aminoglycosides

Patients receiving concomitant TOBI and parenteral aminoglycoside therapy should be monitored as clinically appropriate for toxicities associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Serum tobramycin levels should be monitored.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

TOBI Podhaler has been evaluated for safety in 425 cystic fibrosis patients exposed to at least one dose of TOBI Podhaler, including 273 patients who were exposed across three cycles (6 months) of treatment. Each cycle consisted of 28 days on-treatment (with 112 mg administered twice-daily) and 28 days off-treatment. Patients with serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ≥40 mg/dL were excluded from clinical studies. There were 218 males and 207 females in this population, and reflecting the cystic fibrosis population in the U.S., the vast majority of patients were Caucasian. There were 221 patients ≥20 years old, 121 patients ≥13 to <20 years old, and 83 patients ≥6 to <13 years old. There were 239 patients with screening FEV1 % predicted ≥50%, 156 patients with screening FEV1 % predicted <50%, and 30 patients with missing FEV1 % predicted.

The primary safety population reflects patients from Study 1, an open-label study comparing TOBI Podhaler with TOBI (tobramycin inhalation solution, USP) over three cycles of 4 weeks on treatment followed by 4 weeks off treatment. Randomization, in a planned 3:2 ratio, resulted in 308 patients treated with TOBI Podhaler and 209 patients treated with TOBI. For both the TOBI Podhaler and TOBI groups, mean exposure to medication for each cycle was 28 to 29 days. The mean age for both arms was between 25 and 26 years old. The mean baseline FEV1 % predicted for both arms was 53%.

Table 1 displays adverse drug reactions reported by at least 2% of TOBI Podhaler patients in Study 1, inclusive of all cycles (on and off treatment). Adverse drug reactions are listed according to MedDRA system organ class and sorted within system organ class group in descending order of frequency.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Study 1 (Occurring in ≥2% of TOBI Podhaler Patients)
*
This includes adverse events of pulmonary or cystic fibrosis exacerbations

Primary System Organ Class Preferred Term

TOBI PodhalerN=308%

TOBIN=209%

Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders

Cough

48.4

31.1

Lung disorder *

33.8

30.1

Productive cough

18.2

19.6

Dyspnea

15.6

12.4

Oropharyngeal pain

14.0

10.5

Dysphonia

13.6

3.8

Hemoptysis

13.0

12.4

Nasal congestion

8.1

7.2

Rales

7.1

6.2

Wheezing

6.8

6.2

Chest discomfort

6.5

2.9

Throat irritation

4.5

1.9

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea

7.5

9.6

Vomiting

6.2

5.7

Diarrhea

4.2

1.9

Dysgeusia

3.9

0.5

Infections and infestations

Upper respiratory tract infection

6.8

8.6

Investigations

Pulmonary function test decreased

6.8

8.1

Forced expiratory volume decreased

3.9

1.0

Blood glucose increased

2.9

0.5

Vascular disorders

Epistaxis

2.6

1.9

Nervous system disorders

Headache

11.4

12.0

General disorders and administration site conditions

Pyrexia

15.6

12.4

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Musculoskeletal chest pain

4.5

4.8

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash

2.3

2.4

Adverse drug reactions that occurred in <2% of patients treated with TOBI Podhaler in Study 1 were: bronchospasm (TOBI Podhaler 1.6%, TOBI 0.5%); deafness including deafness unilateral (reported as mild to moderate hearing loss or increased hearing loss) (TOBI Podhaler 1.0%, TOBI 0.5%); and tinnitus (TOBI Podhaler 1.9%, TOBI 2.4%).

Discontinuations in Study 1 were higher in the TOBI Podhaler arm compared to TOBI (27% TOBI Podhaler versus 18% TOBI). This was driven primarily by discontinuations due to adverse events (14% TOBI Podhaler versus 8% TOBI). Higher rates of discontinuation were seen in subjects ≥20 years old and those with baseline FEV1 % predicted <50%.

Respiratory related hospitalizations occurred in 24% of the patients in the TOBI Podhaler arm and 22% of the patients in the TOBI arm. There was an increased new usage of antipseudomonal medication in the TOBI Podhaler arm (65% TOBI Podhaler versus 55% TOBI). This included oral antibiotics in 55% of TOBI Podhaler patients and 40% of TOBI patients and intravenous antibiotics in 35% of TOBI Podhaler patients and 33% of TOBI patients. Median time to first antipseudomonal usage was 89 days in the TOBI Podhaler arm and 112 days in the TOBI arm.

The supportive safety population reflects patients from two studies: Study 2, a double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the first treatment cycle, followed by all patients receiving TOBI Podhaler (replaced placebo) for two additional cycles, and Study 3, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for one treatment cycle only. Placebo in these studies was inhaled powder without the active ingredient, tobramycin. The patient population for these studies was much younger than in Study 1 (mean age 13 years old).

Adverse drug reactions reported more frequently by TOBI Podhaler patients in the placebo-controlled cycle (Cycle 1) of Study 2, which included 46 TOBI Podhaler and 49 placebo patients, were:

Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders
Pharyngolaryngeal pain (TOBI Podhaler 10.9%, placebo 0%); dysphonia (TOBI Podhaler 4.3%, placebo 0%)

Gastrointestinal disorders
Dysgeusia (TOBI Podhaler 6.5%, placebo 2.0%)

Adverse drug reactions reported more frequently by TOBI Podhaler patients in Study 3, which included 30 TOBI Podhaler and 32 placebo patients, were:

Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders
Cough (TOBI Podhaler 10%, placebo 0%)

Ear and labyrinth disorders Hypoacusis (TOBI Podhaler 10%, placebo 6.3%)

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