TOBI

TOBI- tobramycin solution
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

TOBI is indicated for the management of cystic fibrosis in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Safety and efficacy have not been demonstrated in patients under the age of 6 years, patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) < 25% or > 75% predicted, or patients colonized with Burkholderia cepacia [see Clinical Studies (14)].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage

TOBI is for oral inhalation only [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]. The recommended dosage of TOBI for both adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older is one single-dose ampoule (300 mg) administered twice daily for 28 days. Dosage is not adjusted by weight. All patients should be administered 300 mg twice daily.

TOBI is administered twice daily in alternating periods of 28 days. After 28 days of therapy, patients should stop TOBI therapy for the next 28 days, and then resume therapy for the next 28 day on/28 day off cycle. The doses should be taken as close to 12 hours apart as possible; they should not be taken less than 6 hours apart.

If patients miss a dose, they should take it as soon as possible anytime up to 6 hours prior to their next scheduled dose. If less than 6 hours remain before the next dose, wait until their next scheduled dose.

2.2 Administration Instructions

TOBI is administered by oral inhalation over an approximately 15-minute period, using a hand-held PARI LC PLUS Reusable Nebulizer with a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. TOBI should not be diluted or mixed with dornase alfa or other medications in the nebulizer. TOBI is not for subcutaneous, intravenous or intrathecal administration.

Prior to administration of TOBI, read the Patient Information/Instructions for Use for TOBI for detailed information on how to use TOBI, and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and care of the PARI LC PLUS Reusable Nebulizer and DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide air compressor. TOBI is inhaled while the patient is sitting or standing upright and breathing normally through the mouthpiece of the nebulizer. Nose clips may help the patient breathe through the mouth.

Instruct patients on multiple therapies to take their medications, prior to inhaling TOBI or as directed by their physician.

TOBI should not be used if it is cloudy, if there are particles in the solution, or if it has been stored at room temperature for more than 28 days.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

TOBI is supplied as a sterile inhalational solution for nebulization in single-dose 5 mL ampoules. Each 5 mL ampoule contains 300 mg of tobramycin.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

TOBI is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any aminoglycoside.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Bronchospasm

Bronchospasm can occur with inhalation of TOBI. In clinical studies with TOBI, changes in FEV1 measured after the inhaled dose were similar in tobramycin inhalation solution and placebo groups. Bronchospasm that occurs during the use of TOBI should be treated as medically appropriate.

5.2 Ototoxicity

Ototoxicity, manifested as both auditory and vestibular toxicity, has been reported with parenteral aminoglycosides.

Transient tinnitus occurred in eight TOBI treated patients versus no placebo patients in the clinical studies. Tinnitus may be a sentinel symptom of ototoxicity, and therefore the onset of this symptom warrants further clinical investigation. Ototoxicity, as measured by complaints of hearing loss or by audiometric evaluations, did not occur with TOBI therapy during clinical studies, however in postmarketing experience, patients receiving TOBI have reported hearing loss. Vestibular toxicity may be manifested by vertigo, ataxia or dizziness. Patients with known or suspected auditory or vestibular dysfunction should be closely monitored when taking TOBI. Monitoring might include obtaining audiometric evaluations and serum tobramycin levels. If ototoxicity is noted, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing TOBI.

5.3 Nephrotoxicity

Nephrotoxicity was not seen during clinical studies with TOBI but has been associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Patients with known or suspected renal dysfunction or taking concomitant nephrotoxic drugs along with TOBI should have serum concentrations of tobramycin and laboratory measurements of renal function obtained at the discretion of the treating physician. If nephrotoxicity develops, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing TOBI.

5.4 Neuromuscular Disorders

Aminoglycosides, including tobramycin, may aggravate muscle weakness because of a potential curare-like effect on neuromuscular function. Neuromuscular blockade, respiratory failure, and prolonged respiratory paralysis may occur more commonly in patients with underlying neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis or Parkinson’s disease. Prolonged respiratory paralysis may also occur in patients receiving concomitant neuromuscular blocking agents. If neuromuscular blockade occurs, it may be reversed by the administration of calcium salts but mechanical assistance may be necessary.

5.5 Embryo-fetal Toxicity

Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycosides cross the placenta, and streptomycin has been associated with several reports of total, irreversible, bilateral congenital deafness in pediatric patients exposed in utero. However, systemic absorption of tobramycin following inhaled administration is expected to be minimal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Patients who use TOBI during pregnancy, or become pregnant while taking TOBI should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ].

5.6 Concomitant Use of Systemic Aminoglycosides

Patients receiving concomitant TOBI and parenteral aminoglycoside therapy should be monitored as clinically appropriate for toxicities associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Serum tobramycin levels should be monitored.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

Bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]
Ototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]
Nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]
Neuromuscular Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
Embryo-fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]
Concomitant Use of Systemic Aminoglycosides [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

TOBI was studied in two Phase 3 clinical studies involving 258 cystic fibrosis patients ranging in age from 6 to 48 years. Patients received TOBI in alternating periods of 28 days on and 28 days off drug in addition to their standard cystic fibrosis therapy for a total of 24 weeks.

Table 1 lists the percent of patients with selected adverse reactions that occurred in > 5% of TOBI patients during the two Phase 3 studies.

Table 1: Percent of Patients With Selected Adverse Reactions Occurring in > 5% of TOBI Patients
*
Includes reported decreases in pulmonary function tests or decreased lung volume on chest radiograph associated with intercurrent illness or study drug administration.

Adverse Reaction

Tobramycin Inhalation Solution (n = 258) %

Placebo (n = 262) %

Cough Increased

46.1

47.3

Pharyngitis

38.0

39.3

Sputum Increased

37.6

39.7

Dyspnea

33.7

38.5

Hemoptysis

19.4

23.7

Lung Function Decreased *

16.3

15.3

Voice Alteration

12.8

6.5

Taste Perversion

6.6

6.9

Rash

5.4

6.1

Selected adverse reactions that occurred in less than or equal to 5% of patients treated with TOBI:

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: Tinnitus

Musculoskeletal and ConnectiveTtissue Disorders: Myalgia

Infections and Infestations: Laryngitis

Voice Alteration and Tinnitus

Voice alteration and tinnitus were the only adverse reactions reported by significantly more TOBI-treated patients. Thirty-three patients (13%) treated with TOBI complained of voice alteration compared to 17 (7%) placebo patients. Voice alteration was more common in the on-drug periods.

Eight patients from the TOBI group (3%) reported tinnitus compared to no placebo patients. All episodes were transient, resolved without discontinuation of the TOBI treatment regimen, and were not associated with loss of hearing in audiograms. Tinnitus is one of the sentinel symptoms of cochlear toxicity, and patients with this symptom should be carefully monitored for high frequency hearing loss. The numbers of patients reporting vestibular adverse experiences such as dizziness were similar in the TOBI and placebo groups.

Changes in Serum Creatinine

Nine (3%) patients in the TOBI group and nine (3%) patients in the placebo group had increases in serum creatinine of at least 50% over baseline. In all nine patients in the TOBI group, creatinine decreased at the next visit.

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