TOBRAMYCIN — tobramycin solution
Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP is indicated for the management of cystic fibrosis in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Safety and efficacy have not been demonstrated in patients under the age of 6 years, patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) <25% or >75% predicted, or patients colonized with Burkholderia cepacia [see Clinical Studies (14)].
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP is for oral inhalation only [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. The recommended dosage of tobramycin inhalation solution for both adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older is one single-dose ampoule (300 mg) administered twice daily for 28 days. Dosage is not adjusted by weight. All patients should be administered 300 mg twice daily.
Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP is administered twice daily in alternating periods of 28 days. After 28 days of therapy, patients should stop tobramycin inhalation solution therapy for the next 28 days, and then resume therapy for the next 28 day on/28 day off cycle. The doses should be taken as close to 12 hours apart as possible; they should not be taken less than 6 hours apart.
If patients miss a dose, they should take it as soon as possible anytime up to 6 hours prior to their next scheduled dose. If less than 6 hours remain before the next dose, wait until their next scheduled dose.
2.2 Administration Instructions
Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP is administered by oral inhalation over an approximately 15-minute period, using a hand-held PARI LC PLUSTM Reusable Nebulizer with a DeVilbiss® Pulmo-Aide® compressor. Tobramycin inhalation solution should not be diluted or mixed with dornase alfa or other medications in the nebulizer. Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP is not for subcutaneous, intravenous or intrathecal administration.
Prior to administration of tobramycin inhalation solution, read the Patient Information/Instructions for Use for tobramycin inhalation solution for detailed information on how to use tobramycin inhalation solution and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and care of the PARI LC PLUS Reusable Nebulizer and DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide air compressor. Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP is inhaled while the patient is sitting or standing upright and breathing normally through the mouthpiece of the nebulizer. Nose clips may help the patient breathe through the mouth.
Instruct patients on multiple therapies to take their medications, prior to inhaling tobramycin inhalation solution or as directed by their physician.
Tobramycin inhalation solution, USP should not be used if it is cloudy, if there are particles in the solution, or if it has been stored at room temperature for more than 28 days.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Tobramycin inhalation solution is supplied as a sterile inhalational solution for nebulization in single-dose 5 mL ampoules. Each 5 mL ampoule contains 300 mg of tobramycin.
Tobramycin inhalation solution is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any aminoglycoside.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Bronchospasm can occur with inhalation of tobramycin inhalation solution. In clinical studies with tobramycin inhalation solution, changes in FEV1 measured after the inhaled dose were similar in tobramycin inhalation solution and placebo groups. Bronchospasm that occurs during the use of tobramycin inhalation solution should be treated as medically appropriate.
Ototoxicity, manifested as both auditory and vestibular toxicity, has been reported with parenteral aminoglycosides.
Transient tinnitus occurred in eight tobramycin inhalation solution treated patients versus no placebo patients in the clinical studies. Tinnitus may be a sentinel symptom of ototoxicity, and therefore the onset of this symptom warrants further clinical investigation.
Ototoxicity, as measured by complaints of hearing loss or by audiometric evaluations, did not occur with tobramycin inhalation solution therapy during clinical studies, however in postmarketing experience, patients receiving tobramycin inhalation solution have reported hearing loss.
Vestibular toxicity may be manifested by vertigo, ataxia or dizziness. Patients with known or suspected auditory or vestibular dysfunction should be closely monitored when taking tobramycin inhalation solution. Monitoring might include obtaining audiometric evaluations and serum tobramycin levels. If ototoxicity is noted, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing tobramycin inhalation solution.
Nephrotoxicity was not seen during clinical studies with tobramycin inhalation solution but has been associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Patients with known or suspected renal dysfunction or taking concomitant nephrotoxic drugs along with tobramycin inhalation solution should have serum concentrations of tobramycin and laboratory measurements of renal function obtained at the discretion of the treating physician. If nephrotoxicity develops, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing tobramycin inhalation solution.
5.4 Neuromuscular Disorders
Aminoglycosides, including tobramycin, may aggravate muscle weakness because of a potential curare-like effect on neuromuscular function. Neuromuscular blockade, respiratory failure, and prolonged respiratory paralysis may occur more commonly in patients with underlying neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis or Parkinson’s disease.
Prolonged respiratory paralysis may also occur in patients receiving concomitant neuromuscular blocking agents. If neuromuscular blockade occurs, it may be reversed by the administration of calcium salts but mechanical assistance may be necessary.
5.5 Embryo-fetal Toxicity
Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycosides cross the placenta, and streptomycin has been associated with several reports of total, irreversible, bilateral congenital deafness in pediatric patients exposed in utero. However, systemic absorption of tobramycin following inhaled administration is expected to be minimal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients who use tobramycin inhalation solution during pregnancy, or become pregnant while taking tobramycin inhalation solution should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
5.6 Concomitant Use of Systemic Aminoglycosides
Patients receiving concomitant tobramycin inhalation solution and parenteral aminoglycoside therapy should be monitored as clinically appropriate for toxicities associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Serum tobramycin levels should be monitored.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:
- Bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Ototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Neuromuscular Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Embryo-fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Concomitant Use of Systemic Aminoglycosides [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Tobramycin inhalation solution was studied in two phase 3 clinical studies involving 258 cystic fibrosis patients ranging in age from 6 to 48 years. Patients received tobramycin inhalation solution in alternating periods of 28 days on and 28 days off drug in addition to their standard cystic fibrosis therapy for a total of 24 weeks.
Table 1 lists the percent of patients with selected adverse reactions that occurred in >5% of tobramycin inhalation solution patients during the two Phase III studies.
|Adverse Reaction||Tobramycin Inhalation Solution (n=258) %||Placebo (n=262) %|
|Cough Increased Pharyngitis Sputum Increased Dyspnea Hemoptysis Lung Function Decreased1 Voice Alteration Taste Perversion Rash||46.1 38.0 37.6 33.7 19.4 16.3 12.8 6.6 5.4||47.3 39.3 39.7 38.5 23.7 15.3 6.5 6.9 6.1|
1 Includes reported decreases in pulmonary function tests or decreased lung volume on chest radiograph associated with intercurrent illness or study drug administration.
Selected adverse reactions that occurred in less than or equal to 5% of patients treated with tobramycin inhalation solution:
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Tinnitus
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Myalgia
Infections and infestations: Laryngitis
Voice Alteration and Tinnitus
Voice alteration and tinnitus were the only adverse reactions reported by significantly more tobramycin inhalation solution-treated patients. Thirty- three patients (13%) treated with tobramycin inhalation solution complained of voice alteration compared to 17 (7%) placebo patients. Voice alteration was more common in the on-drug periods.
Eight patients from the tobramycin inhalation solution group (3%) reported tinnitus compared to no placebo patients. All episodes were transient, resolved without discontinuation of the tobramycin inhalation solution treatment regimen, and were not associated with loss of hearing in audiograms. Tinnitus is one of the sentinel symptoms of cochlear toxicity, and patients with this symptom should be carefully monitored for high frequency hearing loss. The numbers of patients reporting vestibular adverse experiences such as dizziness were similar in the tobramycin inhalation solution and placebo groups.
Changes in Serum Creatinine
Nine (3%) patients in the tobramycin inhalation solution group and nine (3%) patients in the placebo group had increases in serum creatinine of at least 50% over baseline. In all nine patients in the tobramycin inhalation solution group, creatinine decreased at the next visit.
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