TOBRAMYCIN- tobramycin solution
Lifestar Pharma LLC
Safety and efficacy have not been demonstrated in patients under the age of 6 years, patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) <25% or >75% predicted, or patients colonized with Burkholderia cepacia [see Clinical Studies (14)].
Tobramycin inhalation solution is for oral inhalation only [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. The recommended dosage of tobramycin inhalation solution for both adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older is one single-dose ampoule (300 mg) administered twice daily for 28 days. Dosage is not adjusted by weight. All patients should be administered 300 mg twice daily.
Tobramycin inhalation solution is administered twice daily in alternating periods of 28 days. After 28 days of therapy, patients should stop tobramycin inhalation solution therapy for the next 28 days, and then resume therapy for the next 28 day on/28 day off cycle. The doses should be taken as close to 12 hours apart as possible; they should not be taken less than 6 hours apart.
If patients miss a dose, they should take it as soon as possible anytime up to 6 hours prior to their next scheduled dose. If less than 6 hours remain before the next dose, wait until their next scheduled dose.
Tobramycin inhalation solution is administered by oral inhalation over an approximately 15-minute period, using a hand-held PARI LC PLUS Reusable Nebulizer with a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. Tobramycin inhalation solution should not be diluted or mixed with dornase alfa or other medications in the nebulizer. Tobramycin inhalation solution is not for subcutaneous, intravenous or intrathecal administration.
Prior to administration of tobramycin inhalation solution, read the Patient Information/Instructions for Use for tobramycin inhalation solution for detailed information on how to use tobramycin inhalation solution and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and care of the PARI LC PLUS Reusable Nebulizer and DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide air compressor. Tobramycin inhalation solution is inhaled while the patient is sitting or standing upright and breathing normally through the mouthpiece of the nebulizer. Nose clips may help the patient breathe through the mouth.
Instruct patients on multiple therapies to take their medications, prior to inhaling tobramycin inhalation solution or as directed by their physician.
Tobramycin inhalation solution should not be used if it is cloudy, if there are particles in the solution, or if it has been stored at room temperature for more than 28 days.
Bronchospasm can occur with inhalation of tobramycin inhalation solution. In clinical studies with tobramycin inhalation solution, changes in FEV1 measured after the inhaled dose were similar in tobramycin inhalation solution and placebo groups. Bronchospasm that occurs during the use of tobramycin inhalation solution should be treated as medically appropriate.
Transient tinnitus occurred in eight tobramycin inhalation solution treated patients versus no placebo patients in the clinical studies. Tinnitus may be a sentinel symptom of ototoxicity, and therefore the onset of this symptom warrants further clinical investigation. Ototoxicity, as measured by complaints of hearing loss or by audiometric evaluations, did not occur with tobramycin inhalation solution therapy during clinical studies, however in postmarketing experience, patients receiving tobramycin inhalation solution have reported hearing loss. Vestibular toxicity may be manifested by vertigo, ataxia or dizziness. Patients with known or suspected auditory or vestibular dysfunction should be closely monitored when taking tobramycin inhalation solution. Monitoring might include obtaining audiometric evaluations and serum tobramycin levels. If ototoxicity is noted, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing tobramycin inhalation solution.
Risk of Ototoxicity Due to Mitochondrial DNA Variants
Cases of ototoxicity with aminoglycosides have been observed in patients with certain variants in the mitochondrially encoded 12S rRNA gene (MT-RNR1) , particularly the m.1555A>G variant. Ototoxicity occurred in some patients even when their aminoglycoside serum levels were within the recommended range. Mitochondrial DNA variants are present in less than 1% of the general US population, and the proportion of the variant carriers who may develop ototoxicity as well as the severity of ototoxicity is unknown. In case of known maternal history of ototoxicity due to aminoglycoside use or a known mitochondrial DNA variant in the patient, consider alternative treatments other than aminoglycosides unless the increased risk of permanent hearing loss is outweighed by the severity of infection and lack of safe and effective alternative therapies.
Nephrotoxicity was not seen during clinical studies with tobramycin inhalation solution but has been associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Patients with known or suspected renal dysfunction or taking concomitant nephrotoxic drugs along with tobramycin inhalation solution should have serum concentrations of tobramycin and laboratory measurements of renal function obtained at the discretion of the treating physician. If nephrotoxicity develops, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing tobramycin inhalation solution.
Aminoglycosides, including tobramycin, may aggravate muscle weakness because of a potential curare-like effect on neuromuscular function. Neuromuscular blockade, respiratory failure, and prolonged respiratory paralysis may occur more commonly in patients with underlying neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis or Parkinson’s disease. Prolonged respiratory paralysis may also occur in patients receiving concomitant neuromuscular blocking agents. If neuromuscular blockade occurs, it may be reversed by the administration of calcium salts but mechanical assistance may be necessary.
Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycosides cross the placenta, and streptomycin has been associated with several reports of total, irreversible, bilateral congenital deafness in pediatric patients exposed in utero. However, systemic absorption of tobramycin following inhaled administration is expected to be minimal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients who use tobramycin inhalation solution during pregnancy, or become pregnant while taking tobramycin inhalation solution should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Patients receiving concomitant tobramycin inhalation solution and parenteral aminoglycoside therapy should be monitored as clinically appropriate for toxicities associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Serum tobramycin levels should be monitored.
- Bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Ototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Nephrotoxicity[see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Neuromuscular Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Embryo-fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Concomitant Use of Systemic Aminoglycosides [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
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