Concomitant use with hypertonic saline is not recommended.
Tolvaptan is a substrate of CYP3A. Moderate to strong CYP3A inhibitors can lead to a marked increase in tolvaptan concentrations [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1)]. Do not use tolvaptan tablets with strong inhibitors of CYP3A [see Contraindications ( 4)] and avoid concomitant use with moderate CYP3A inhibitors.
Treatment with tolvaptan is associated with an acute reduction of the extracellular fluid volume which could result in increased serum potassium. Serum potassium levels should be monitored after initiation of tolvaptan treatment in patients with a serum potassium >5 mEq/L as well as those who are receiving drugs known to increase serum potassium levels.
Patients with partial obstruction of urinary outflow, for example, patients with prostatic hypertrophy or impairment of micturition, have an increased risk of developing acute retention. Do not administer tolvaptan in patients with uncorrected urinary outflow obstruction.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse event information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
In multiple-dose, placebo-controlled trials, 607 hyponatremic patients (serum sodium <135 mEq/L) were treated with tolvaptan tablets. The mean age of these patients was 62 years; 70% of patients were male and 82% were Caucasian. One hundred eighty-nine (189) tolvaptan-treated patients had a serum sodium <130 mEq/L, and 52 patients had a serum sodium <125 mEq/L. Hyponatremia was attributed to cirrhosis in 17% of patients, heart failure in 68% and SIADH/other in 16%. Of these patients, 223 were treated with the recommended dose titration (15 mg titrated to 60 mg as needed to raise serum sodium).
Overall, over 4,000 patients have been treated with oral doses of tolvaptan in open-label or placebo-controlled clinical trials. Approximately 650 of these patients had hyponatremia; approximately 219 of these hyponatremic patients were treated with tolvaptan for 6 months or more.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% more than placebo) seen in two 30-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled hyponatremia trials in which tolvaptan was administered in titrated doses (15 mg to 60 mg once daily) were thirst, dry mouth, asthenia, constipation, pollakiuria or polyuria and hyperglycemia. In these trials, 10% (23/223) of tolvaptan-treated patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse event, compared to 12% (26/220) of placebo-treated patients; no adverse reaction resulting in discontinuation of trial medication occurred at an incidence of >1% in tolvaptan-treated patients.
Table 1 lists the adverse reactions reported in tolvaptan-treated patients with hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/L) and at a rate at least 2% greater than placebo-treated patients in two 30-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In these studies, 223 patients were exposed to tolvaptan (starting dose 15 mg, titrated to 30 and 60 mg as needed to raise serum sodium). Adverse events resulting in death in these trials were 6% in tolvaptan-treated patients and 6% in placebo-treated patients. Table 1. Adverse Reactions (>2% more than placebo) in Tolvaptan-Treated Patients in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Hyponatremia Trials
|System Organ Class MedDRA Preferred Term||Tolvaptan 15 mg/day to 60 mg/day (N = 223) n (%)||Placebo (N = 220) n (%)|
|Dry mouth||28 (13)||9 (4)|
|Constipation||16 (7)||4 (2)|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions|
|Thirst *||35 (16)||11 (5)|
|Asthenia||19 (9)||9 (4)|
|Pyrexia||9 (4)||2 (1)|
|Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders|
|Hyperglycemia †||14 (6)||2 (1)|
|Anorexia ‡||8 (4)||2 (1)|
|Renal and Urinary Disorders|
|Pollakiuria or polyuria §||25 (11)||7 (3)|
The following terms are subsumed under the referenced ADR in Table 1:
*polydipsia; † diabetes mellitus; ‡ decreased appetite; § urine output increased, micturition urgency, nocturia
In a subgroup of patients with hyponatremia (N = 475, serum sodium <135 mEq/L) enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (mean duration of treatment was 9 months) of patients with worsening heart failure, the following adverse reactions occurred in tolvaptan-treated patients at a rate at least 2% greater than placebo: mortality (42% tolvaptan, 38% placebo), nausea (21% tolvaptan, 16% placebo), thirst (12% tolvaptan, 2% placebo), dry mouth (7% tolvaptan, 2% placebo) and polyuria or pollakiuria (4% tolvaptan, 1% placebo).
Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis
In patients with cirrhosis treated with tolvaptan in the hyponatremia trials, gastrointestinal bleeding was reported in 6 out of 63 (10%) tolvaptan-treated patients and 1 out of 57 (2%) placebo treated patients.
The following adverse reactions occurred in <2% of hyponatremic patients treated with tolvaptan tablets and at a rate greater than placebo in double-blind placebo-controlled trials (N = 607 tolvaptan; N = 518 placebo) or in <2% of patients in an uncontrolled trial of patients with hyponatremia (N = 111) and are not mentioned elsewhere in the label.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Cardiac Disorders: Intracardiac thrombus, ventricular fibrillation
Investigations: Prothrombin time prolonged
Gastrointestinal Disorders: Ischemic colitis
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: Diabetic ketoacidosis
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Rhabdomyolysis
Nervous System: Cerebrovascular accident
Renal and Urinary Disorders: Urethral hemorrhage
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders (female): Vaginal hemorrhage
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: Pulmonary embolism, respiratory failure
Vascular disorder: Deep vein thrombosis
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