Topiramate has been administered to 2,246 adults and 427 pediatric patients with epilepsy during all clinical studies, only some of which were placebo controlled. During these studies, all adverse events were recorded by the clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals having adverse events, similar types of events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized categories using modified WHOART dictionary terminology. The frequencies presented represent the proportion of patients who experienced an event of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving topiramate. Reported events are included except those already listed in the previous tables or text, those too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug.
Events are classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: Infrequent: vasodilation.
Body as a Whole: Frequent: syncope. Infrequent: abdomen enlarged. Rare: alcohol intolerance.
Cardiovascular Disorders, General: Infrequent: hypotension, postural hypotension, angina pectoris.
Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders: Infrequent : neuropathy, apraxia, hyperaesthesia, dyskinesia, dysphonia, scotoma, ptosis, dystonia, visual field defect, encephalopathy, EEG abnormal. Rare: upper motor neuron lesion, cerebellar syndrome, tongue paralysis.
Gastrointestinal System Disorders: Infrequent: hemorrhoids, stomatitis, melena, gastritis, esophagitis. Rare: tongue edema.
Heart Rate and Rhythm Disorders: Infrequent: AV block.
Liver and Biliary System Disorders: Infrequent: SGPT increased, SGOT increased.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Infrequent: dehydration, hypokalemia, alkaline phosphatase increased, hypocalcemia, hyperlipemia, hyperglycemia, xerophthalmia, diabetes mellitus. Rare: hyperchloremia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, hypocholesterolemia, hypophosphatemia, creatinine increased.
Musculoskeletal System Disorders: Frequent: arthralgia. Infrequent: arthrosis.
Neoplasms: Infrequent: thrombocythemia. Rare: polycythemia.
Platelet, Bleeding, and Clotting Disorders: Infrequent: gingival bleeding, pulmonary embolism.
Psychiatric Disorders: Frequent: impotence, hallucination, psychosis, suicide attempt. Infrequent: euphoria, paranoid reaction, delusion, paranoia, delirium, abnormal dreaming. Rare: libido increased, manic reaction.
Red Blood Cell Disorders: Frequent: anemia. Rare: marrow depression, pancytopenia.
Reproductive Disorders, Male: Infrequent: ejaculation disorder, breast discharge.
Skin and Appendages Disorders: Infrequent: urticaria, photosensitivity reaction, abnormal hair texture. Rare: chloasma.
Special Senses Other, Disorders: Infrequent: taste loss, parosmia.
Urinary System Disorders: Infrequent: urinary retention, face edema, renal pain, albuminuria, polyuria, oliguria.
Vascular (Extracardiac) Disorders: Infrequent: flushing, deep vein thrombosis, phlebitis. Rare: vasospasm.
Vision Disorders: Frequent: conjunctivitis. Infrequent: abnormal accommodation, photophobia, strabismus. Rare: mydriasis, iritis.
White Cell and Reticuloendothelial System Disorders: Infrequent: lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, lymphopenia, granulocytopenia. Rare: lymphocytosis.
In addition to the adverse experiences reported during clinical testing of topiramate, the following adverse experiences have been reported worldwide in patients receiving topiramate post-approval.
These adverse experiences have not been listed above and data are insufficient to support an estimate of their incidence or to establish causation. The listing is alphabetized: bullous skin reactions (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), hepatic failure (including fatalities), hepatitis, maculopathy, pancreatitis, pemphigus, and renal tubular acidosis.
The abuse and dependence potential of topiramate has not been evaluated in human studies.
Overdoses of topiramate have been reported. Signs and symptoms included convulsions, drowsiness, speech disturbance, blurred vision, diplopia, mentation impaired, lethargy, abnormal coordination, stupor, hypotension, abdominal pain, agitation, dizziness and depression. The clinical consequences were not severe in most cases, but deaths have been reported after poly-drug overdoses involving topiramate.
Topiramate overdose has resulted in severe metabolic acidosis (see WARNINGS).
A patient who ingested a dose between 96 and 110 g topiramate was admitted to hospital with coma lasting 20 to 24 hours followed by full recovery after 3 to 4 days.
In acute topiramate overdose, if the ingestion is recent, the stomach should be emptied immediately by lavage or by induction of emesis. Activated charcoal has been shown to adsorb topiramate in vitro. Treatment should be appropriately supportive. Hemodialysis is an effective means of removing topiramate from the body.
In the controlled add-on trials, no correlation has been demonstrated between trough plasma concentrations of topiramate and clinical efficacy. No evidence of tolerance has been demonstrated in humans. Doses above 400 mg/day (600, 800, or 1000 mg/day) have not been shown to improve responses in dose-response studies in adults with partial onset seizures.
It is not necessary to monitor topiramate plasma concentrations to optimize topiramate therapy. On occasion, the addition of topiramate to phenytoin may require an adjustment of the dose of phenytoin to achieve optimal clinical outcome. Addition or withdrawal of phenytoin and/or carbamazepine during adjunctive therapy with topiramate may require adjustment of the dose of topiramate. Because of the bitter taste, tablets should not be broken.
Topiramate tablets can be taken without regard to meals.
The recommended dose for topiramate monotherapy in adults and children 10 years of age and older is 400 mg/day in two divided doses. Approximately 58% of patients randomized to 400 mg/day achieved this maximal dose in the monotherapy controlled trial; the mean dose achieved in the trial was 275 mg/day. The dose should be achieved by titrating according to the following schedule:
|Morning Dose||Evening Dose|
|Week 1||25 mg||25 mg|
|Week 2||50 mg||50 mg|
|Week 3||75 mg||75 mg|
|Week 4||100 mg||100 mg|
|Week 5||150 mg||150 mg|
|Week 6||200 mg||200 mg|
Adults (17 Years of Age and Over) — Partial Seizures, Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, or Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
The recommended total daily dose of topiramate as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures is 200 to 400 mg/day in two divided doses, and 400 mg/day in two divided doses as adjunctive treatment in adults with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It is recommended that therapy be initiated at 25 to 50 mg/day followed by titration to an effective dose in increments of 25 to 50 mg/week. Titrating in increments of 25 mg/week may delay the time to reach an effective dose. Daily doses above 1,600 mg have not been studied.
In the study of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures the initial titration rate was slower than in previous studies; the assigned dose was reached at the end of 8 weeks (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Adjunctive Therapy Controlled Trials in Patients With Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures).
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