Topiramate (Page 5 of 11)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of topiramate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body as a Whole-General Disorders: oligohydrosis and hyperthermia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)], hyperammonemia, hyperammonemic encephalopathy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10)], hypothermia with concomitant valproic acid [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12)]

Gastrointestinal System Disorders: hepatic failure (including fatalities), hepatitis, pancreatitis

Skin and Appendage Disorders: bullous skin reactions (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9)], pemphigus

Urinary System Disorders: kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4, 5.11)]

Vision Disorders: acute myopia, secondary angle closure glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)], maculopathy

Hematological Disorders: decrease of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) or prothrombin time when given concomitantly with vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant medications such as warfarin.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Antiepileptic Drugs

Concomitant administration of phenytoin or carbamazepine with topiramate resulted in a clinically significant decrease in plasma concentrations of topiramate when compared to topiramate given alone. A dosage adjustment may be needed [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

Concomitant administration of valproic acid and topiramate has been associated with hypothermia and hyperammonemia with and without encephalopathy. Examine blood ammonia levels in patients in whom the onset of hypothermia has been reported [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10, 5.12), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

7.2 Other Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Concomitant use of topiramate, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, with any other carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (e.g., zonisamide or acetazolamide) may increase the severity of metabolic acidosis and may also increase the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore, patients given topiramate concomitantly with another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor should be monitored particularly closely for the appearance or worsening of metabolic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

7.3 CNS Depressants

Concomitant administration of topiramate and alcohol or other CNS depressant drugs has not been evaluated in clinical studies. Because of the potential of topiramate to cause CNS depression, as well as other cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric adverse reactions, topiramate should be used with extreme caution if used in combination with alcohol and other CNS depressants.

7.4 Oral Contraceptives

The possibility of decreased contraceptive efficacy and increased breakthrough bleeding may occur in patients taking combination oral contraceptive products with topiramate. Patients taking estrogen-containing contraceptives should be asked to report any change in their bleeding patterns. Contraceptive efficacy can be decreased even in the absence of breakthrough bleeding [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

7.5 Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

Topiramate C max and AUC increased when HCTZ was added to topiramate. The clinical significance of this change is unknown. The addition of HCTZ to topiramate may require a decrease in the topiramate dose [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

7.6 Pioglitazone

A decrease in the exposure of pioglitazone and its active metabolites were noted with the concurrent use of pioglitazone and topiramate in a clinical trial. The clinical relevance of these observations is unknown; however, when topiramate is added to pioglitazone therapy or pioglitazone is added to topiramate therapy, careful attention should be given to the routine monitoring of patients for adequate control of their diabetic disease state [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

7.7 Lithium

An increase in systemic exposure of lithium following topiramate doses of up to 600 mg/day can occur. Lithium levels should be monitored when coadministered with high-dose topiramate [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

7.8 Amitriptyline

Some patients may experience a large increase in amitriptyline concentration in the presence of topiramate and any adjustments in amitriptyline dose should be made according to the patient’s clinical response and not on the basis of plasma levels [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to topiramate during pregnancy. Patients should be encouraged to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry if they become pregnant. This registry is collecting information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. To enroll, patients can call the toll-free number 1-888-233-2334. Information about the North American Drug Pregnancy Registry can be found at http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.

Risk Summary
Topiramate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Data from pregnancy registries indicate that infants exposed to topiramate in utero have an increased risk for cleft lip and/or cleft palate (oral clefts) and for being SGA [see Human Data]. SGA has been observed at all doses and appears to be dose-dependent. The prevalence of SGA is greater in infants of women who received higher doses of topiramate during pregnancy. In addition, the prevalence of SGA in infants of women who continued topiramate use until later in pregnancy is higher compared to the prevalence in infants of women who stopped topiramate use before the third trimester.

In multiple animal species, topiramate produced developmental toxicity, including increased incidences of fetal malformations, in the absence of maternal toxicity at clinically relevant doses [see Animal Data].

In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies are 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Consider the benefits and risks of topiramate when prescribing this drug to women of childbearing potential, particularly when topiramate is considered for a condition not usually associated with permanent injury or death. Because of the risk of oral clefts to the fetus, which occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, all women of childbearing potential should be informed of the potential risk to the fetus from exposure to topiramate. Women who are planning a pregnancy should be counseled regarding the relative risks and benefits of topiramate use during pregnancy, and alternative therapeutic options should be considered for these patients.

Labor or Delivery
Although the effect of topiramate on labor and delivery in humans has not been established, the development of topiramate-induced metabolic acidosis in the mother and/or in the fetus might affect the fetus’ ability to tolerate labor.

Topiramate treatment can cause metabolic acidosis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]. The effect of topiramate-induced metabolic acidosis has not been studied in pregnancy; however, metabolic acidosis in pregnancy (due to other causes) can cause decreased fetal growth, decreased fetal oxygenation, and fetal death, and may affect the fetus’ ability to tolerate labor. Pregnant patients should be monitored for metabolic acidosis and treated as in the nonpregnant state [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]. Newborns of mothers treated with topiramate should be monitored for metabolic acidosis because of transfer of topiramate to the fetus and possible occurrence of transient metabolic acidosis following birth.

Based on limited information, topiramate has also been associated with pre-term labor and premature delivery.

Data
Human Data
Data from pregnancy registries indicate an increased risk of oral clefts in infants exposed to topiramate during the first trimester of pregnancy. In the NAAED pregnancy registry, the prevalence of oral clefts among topiramate-exposed infants (1.1%) was higher than the prevalence of infants exposed to a reference AED (0.36%) or the prevalence of infants in mothers without epilepsy and without exposure to AEDs (0.12%). It was also higher than the background prevalence in United States (0.17%) as estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The relative risk of oral clefts in topiramate-exposed pregnancies in the NAAED Pregnancy Registry was 9.6 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 4 to 23) as compared to the risk in a background population of untreated women. The UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register reported a prevalence of oral clefts among infants exposed to topiramate monotherapy (3.2%) that was 16 times higher than the background rate in the UK (0.2%).

Data from the NAAED pregnancy registry and a population-based birth registry cohort indicate that exposure to topiramate in utero is associated with an increased risk of SGA newborns (birth weight <10th percentile). In the NAAED pregnancy registry, 19.7% of topiramate-exposed newborns were SGA compared to 7.9% of newborns exposed to a reference AED and 5.4% of newborns of mothers without epilepsy and without AED exposure. In the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN), a population-based pregnancy registry, 25% of newborns in the topiramate monotherapy exposure group were SGA compared to 9 % in the comparison group unexposed to AEDs. The long-term consequences of the SGA findings are not known.

Animal Data
When topiramate (0, 20, 100, or 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis, incidences of fetal malformations (primarily craniofacial defects) were increased at all doses. Fetal body weights and skeletal ossification were reduced at the highest dose tested in conjunction with decreased maternal body weight gain. A no-effect dose for embryofetal developmental toxicity in mice was not identified. The lowest dose tested, which was associated with increased malformations, is less than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for epilepsy (400 mg/day) or migraine (100 mg/day) on a body surface area (mg/m 2) basis. In pregnant rats administered topiramate (0, 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day or 0, 0.2, 2.5, 30, and 400 mg/kg/day) orally during the period of organogenesis, the frequency of limb malformations (ectrodactyly, micromelia, and amelia) was increased in fetuses at 400 and 500 mg/kg/day. Embryotoxicity (reduced fetal body weights, increased incidences of structural variations) was observed at doses as low as 20 mg/kg/day. Clinical signs of maternal toxicity were seen at 400 mg/kg/day and above, and maternal body weight gain was reduced at doses of 100 mg/kg/day or greater. The no-effect dose (2.5 mg/kg/day) for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rats is less than the MRHD for epilepsy or migraine on a mg/m 2 basis.

In pregnant rabbits administered topiramate (0, 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg/day or 0, 10, 35, and 120 mg/kg/day) orally during organogenesis, embryofetal mortality was increased at 35 mg/kg/day, and increased incidences of fetal malformations (primarily rib and vertebral malformations) were observed at 120 mg/kg/day. Evidence of maternal toxicity (decreased body weight gain, clinical signs, and/or mortality) was seen at 35 mg/kg/day and above. The no-effect dose (20 mg/kg/day) for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rabbits is equivalent to the MRHD for epilepsy and approximately 4 times the MRHD for migraine on a mg/m 2 basis.

When topiramate (0, 0.2, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day or 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to female rats during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation, offspring exhibited decreased viability and delayed physical development at 200 mg/kg/day and reductions in pre- and/or postweaning body weight gain at 2 mg/kg/day and above. Maternal toxicity (decreased body weight gain, clinical signs) was evident at 100 mg/kg/day or greater. In a rat embryofetal development study which included postnatal assessment of offspring, oral administration of topiramate (0, 0.2, 2.5, 30, and 400 mg/kg) to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis resulted in delayed physical development in offspring at 400 mg/kg/day and persistent reductions in body weight gain in offspring at 30 mg/kg/day and higher. The no-effect dose (0.2 mg/kg/day) for pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats is less than the MRHD for epilepsy or migraine on a mg/m 2 basis.

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