Topiramate (Page 6 of 11)

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary
Topiramate is excreted in human milk [see Data]. The effects of topiramate on milk production are unknown. Diarrhea and somnolence have been reported in breastfed infants whose mothers receive topiramate treatment.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for topiramate and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from topiramate or from the underlying maternal condition.

Data
Human Data
Limited data from 5 women with epilepsy treated with topiramate during lactation showed drug levels in milk similar to those in maternal plasma.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Contraception
Women of childbearing potential who are not planning a pregnancy should use effective contraception because of the risks of oral clefts and SGA [see Drug Interactions ( 7.4) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

Adjunctive Treatment for Partial-Onset Epilepsy in Pediatric Patients 1 to 24 months
Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 2 years have not been established for the adjunctive therapy treatment of partial-onset seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, or seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In a single randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigational trial, the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topiramate oral liquid and sprinkle formulations as an adjunct to concurrent antiepileptic drug therapy in pediatric patients 1 to 24 months of age with refractory partial-onset seizures were assessed. After 20 days of double-blind treatment, topiramate (at fixed doses of 5, 15, and 25 mg/kg/day) did not demonstrate efficacy compared with placebo in controlling seizures.

In general, the adverse reaction profile for topiramate in this population was similar to that of older pediatric patients, although results from the above controlled study and an open-label, long-term extension study in these pediatric patients 1 to 24 months old suggested some adverse reactions/toxicities (not previously observed in older pediatric patients and adults; i.e., growth/length retardation, certain clinical laboratory abnormalities, and other adverse reactions/toxicities that occurred with a greater frequency and/or greater severity than had been recognized previously from studies in older pediatric patients or adults for various indications.

These very young pediatric patients appeared to experience an increased risk for infections (any topiramate dose 12%, placebo 0%) and of respiratory disorders (any topiramate dose 40%, placebo 16%). The following adverse reactions were observed in at least 3% of patients on topiramate and were 3% to 7% more frequent than in patients on placebo: viral infection, bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, cough, and bronchospasm. A generally similar profile was observed in older pediatric patients [see Adverse Reactions ( 6)].

Topiramate resulted in an increased incidence of patients with increased creatinine (any topiramate dose 5%, placebo 0%), BUN (any topiramate dose 3%, placebo 0%), and protein (any topiramate dose 34%, placebo 6%), and an increased incidence of decreased potassium (any topiramate dose 7%, placebo 0%). This increased frequency of abnormal values was not dose-related. Creatinine was the only analyte showing a noteworthy increased incidence (topiramate 25 mg/kg/day 5%, placebo 0%) of a markedly abnormal increase. The significance of these findings is uncertain.

Topiramate treatment also produced a dose-related increase in the percentage of patients who had a shift from normal at baseline to high/increased (above the normal reference range) in total eosinophil count at the end of treatment. The incidence of these abnormal shifts was 6 % for placebo, 10% for 5 mg/kg/day, 9% for 15 mg/kg/day, 14% for 25 mg/kg/day, and 11% for any topiramate dose. There was a mean dose-related increase in alkaline phosphatase. The significance of these findings is uncertain.

Topiramate produced a dose-related increased incidence of hyperammonemia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10)].

Treatment with topiramate for up to 1 year was associated with reductions in Z SCORES for length, weight, and head circumference [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4), Adverse Reactions ( 6)].

In open-label, uncontrolled experience, increasing impairment of adaptive behavior was documented in behavioral testing over time in this population. There was a suggestion that this effect was dose-related. However, because of the absence of an appropriate control group, it is not known if this decrement in function was treatment-related or reflects the patient’s underlying disease (e.g., patients who received higher doses may have more severe underlying disease) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)].

In this open-label, uncontrolled study, the mortality was 37 deaths/1000 patient years. It is not possible to know whether this mortality rate is related to topiramate treatment, because the background mortality rate for a similar, significantly refractory, young pediatric population (1 to 24 months) with partial epilepsy is not known.

Monotherapy Treatment in Partial-Onset Epilepsy in Patients < 2 Years Old
Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 2 years have not been established for the monotherapy treatment of epilepsy.

Preventive Treatment of Migraine in Pediatric Patients 12 to 17 Years of Age
Safety and effectiveness of topiramate for the preventive treatment of migraine was studied in 5 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials in a total of 219 pediatric patients, at doses of 50 to 200 mg/day, or 2 to 3 mg/kg/day. These comprised a fixed dose study in 103 pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)], a flexible dose (2 to 3 mg/kg/day), placebo-controlled study in 157 pediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age (including 67 pediatric patients 12 to 16 years of age), and a total of 49 pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age in 3 studies for the preventive treatment of migraine primarily in adults. Open-label extension phases of 3 studies enabled evaluation of long-term safety for up to 6 months after the end of the double-blind phase.

Efficacy of topiramate for the preventive treatment of migraine in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age is demonstrated for a 100 mg daily dose in Study 13 [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)]. Efficacy of topiramate (2 to 3 mg/kg/day) for the preventive treatment of migraine was not demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial of 157 pediatric patients (6 to 16 years of age) that included treatment of 67 pediatric patients (12 to 16 years of age) for 20 weeks.

In the pediatric trials (12 to 17 years of age) in which patients were randomized to placebo or a fixed daily dose of topiramate, the most common adverse reactions with topiramate that were seen at an incidence higher (≥5%) than in the placebo group were: paresthesia, upper respiratory tract infection, anorexia, and abdominal pain [see Adverse Reactions ( 6)].

The most common cognitive adverse reaction in pooled double-blind studies in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age was difficulty with concentration/attention [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)].

Markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate values indicative of metabolic acidosis were reported in topiramate-treated pediatric migraine patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)].

In topiramate-treated pediatric patients (12 to 17 years of age) compared to placebo-treated patients, abnormally increased results were more frequent for creatinine, BUN, uric acid, chloride, ammonia, total protein, and platelets. Abnormally decreased results were observed with topiramate vs. placebo treatment for phosphorus and bicarbonate [see Clinical Trials Experience ( 6.1)].

Notable changes (increases and decreases) from baseline in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse were observed occurred more commonly in pediatric patients treated with topiramate compared to pediatric patients treated with placebo [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.2)].

Preventive Treatment of Migraine in Pediatric Patients 6 to 11 Years of Age
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established for the preventive treatment of migraine.

In a double-blind study in 90 pediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age (including 59 topiramate-treated and 31 placebo patients), the adverse reaction profile was generally similar to that seen in pooled double-blind studies of pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age. The most common adverse reactions that occurred in topiramate-treated pediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age, and at least twice as frequently than placebo, were gastroenteritis (12% topiramate, 6% placebo), sinusitis (10% topiramate, 3% placebo), weight loss (8% topiramate, 3% placebo) and paresthesia (7% topiramate, 0% placebo). Difficulty with concentration/attention occurred in 3 topiramate-treated patients (5%) and 0 placebo-treated patients.

The risk for cognitive adverse reaction was greater in younger patients (6 to 11 years of age) than in older patients (12 to 17 years of age) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)].

Juvenile Animal Studies When topiramate (0, 30, 90, and 300 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to rats during the juvenile period of development (postnatal days 12 to 50), bone growth plate thickness was reduced in males at the highest dose. The no-effect dose (90 mg/kg/day) for adverse developmental effects is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended pediatric dose (9 mg/kg/day) on a body surface area (mg/m 2) basis.

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