In clinical trials, 3% of patients were over age 60. No age-related differences in effectiveness or adverse effects were evident. However, clinical studies of topiramate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Dosage adjustment may be necessary for elderly with age-related renal impairment (creatinine clearance rate < 70 mL/min/1.73 m 2) resulting in reduced clearance [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].
The clearance of topiramate is reduced in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance 30 to 69 mL/min/1.73 m 2) and severe (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2) renal impairment. A dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].
Topiramate is cleared by hemodialysis at a rate that is 4 to 6 times greater than in a normal individual. A dosage adjustment may be required [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].
Overdoses of topiramate have been reported. Signs and symptoms included convulsions, drowsiness, speech disturbance, blurred vision, diplopia, impaired mentation, lethargy, abnormal coordination, stupor, hypotension, abdominal pain, agitation, dizziness and depression. The clinical consequences were not severe in most cases, but deaths have been reported after overdoses involving topiramate.
Topiramate overdose has resulted in severe metabolic acidosis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)].
A patient who ingested a dose of topiramate between 96 and 110 g was admitted to a hospital with a coma lasting 20 to 24 hours followed by full recovery after 3 to 4 days.
In the event of overdose, topiramate should be discontinued and general supportive treatment given until clinical toxicity has been diminished or resolved. Hemodialysis is an effective means of removing topiramate from the body.
Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide. Topiramate tablets, USP are available as 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg round tablets for oral administration. Topiramate capsules, USP are available as 15 mg and 25 mg sprinkle capsules for oral administration as whole capsules or opened and sprinkled onto soft food.
Topiramate, USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder with bitter taste. It is freely soluble in dichloromethane. Topiramate has the molecular formula C 12 H 21 NO 8 S and a molecular weight of 339.36. Topiramate is designated chemically as 2,3:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose sulfamate and has the following structural formula:
Each topiramate tablet intended for oral administration contains 25 mg or 50 mg or 100 mg or 200 mg of topiramate. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, talc and titanium dioxide.
Each topiramate capsule, USP intended for oral administration contains 15 mg or 25 mg of topiramate. In addition, each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: cellulose acetate, gelatin, hypromellose, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sugar spheres, talc and titanium dioxide. Each capsule is printed with black pharmaceutical ink.
Topiramate Capsules, USP meets USP dissolution test 2.
The precise mechanisms by which topiramate exerts its anticonvulsant and preventive migraine effects are unknown; however, preclinical studies have revealed four properties that may contribute to topiramate’s efficacy for epilepsy and the preventive treatment of migraine. Electrophysiological and biochemical evidence suggests that topiramate, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, blocks voltage-dependent sodium channels, augments the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate at some subtypes of the GABA-A receptor, antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of the glutamate receptor, and inhibits the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, particularly isozymes II and IV.
Topiramate has anticonvulsant activity in rat and mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests. Topiramate is only weakly effective in blocking clonic seizures induced by the GABA A receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole. Topiramate is also effective in rodent models of epilepsy, which include tonic and absence-like seizures in the spontaneous epileptic rat (SER) and tonic and clonic seizures induced in rats by kindling of the amygdala or by global ischemia.
Changes (increases and decreases) from baseline in vital signs (systolic blood pressure-SBP, diastolic blood pressure-DBP, pulse) occurred more frequently in pediatric patients (6 to 17 years) treated with various daily doses of topiramate (50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 2 to 3 mg/kg) than in patients treated with placebo in controlled trials for the preventive treatment of migraine. The most notable changes were SBP <90 mm Hg, DBP <50 mm Hg, SBP or DBP increases or decreases ≥20 mm Hg, and pulse increases or decreases ≥30 beats per minute. These changes were often dose-related, and were most frequently associated with the greatest treatment difference at the 200 mg dose level. Systematic collection of orthostatic vital signs has not been conducted. The clinical significance of these various changes in vital signs has not been clearly established.
The sprinkle formulation is bioequivalent to the immediate-release tablet formulation and, therefore, may be substituted as a therapeutic equivalent.
Absorption of topiramate is rapid, with peak plasma concentrations occurring at approximately 2 hours following a 400 mg oral dose. The relative bioavailability of topiramate from the tablet formulation is about 80% compared to a solution. The bioavailability of topiramate is not affected by food.
The pharmacokinetics of topiramate are linear with dose proportional increases in plasma concentration over the dose range studied (200 to 800 mg/day). The mean plasma elimination half-life is 21 hours after single or multiple doses. Steady-state is thus reached in about 4 days in patients with normal renal function. Topiramate is 15% to 41% bound to human plasma proteins over the blood concentration range of 0.5 to 250 mcg/mL. The fraction bound decreased as blood concentration increased.
Carbamazepine and phenytoin do not alter the binding of topiramate. Sodium valproate, at 500 mcg/mL (a concentration 5 to 10 times higher than considered therapeutic for valproate) decreased the protein binding of topiramate from 23% to 13%. Topiramate does not influence the binding of sodium valproate.
Metabolism and Excretion
Topiramate is not extensively metabolized and is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine (approximately 70% of an administered dose). Six metabolites have been identified in humans, none of which constitutes more than 5% of an administered dose. The metabolites are formed via hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation. There is evidence of renal tubular reabsorption of topiramate. In rats, given probenecid to inhibit tubular reabsorption, along with topiramate, a significant increase in renal clearance of topiramate was observed. This interaction has not been evaluated in humans. Overall, oral plasma clearance (CL/F) is approximately 20 to 30 mL/min in adults following oral administration.
The clearance of topiramate was reduced by 42% in subjects with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 69 mL/min/1.73 m 2) and by 54% in subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2) compared to subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance >70 mL/min/1.73 m 2) [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4) and ( 2.5)].
Topiramate is cleared by hemodialysis. Using a high-efficiency, counterflow, single pass-dialysate hemodialysis procedure, topiramate dialysis clearance was 120 mL/min with blood flow through the dialyzer at 400 mL/min. This high clearance (compared to 20 to 30 mL/min total oral clearance in healthy adults) will remove a clinically significant amount of topiramate from the patient over the hemodialysis treatment period [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.7)].
Plasma clearance of topiramate decreased a mean of 26% in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment.
Age, Gender, and Race
The pharmacokinetics of topiramate in elderly subjects (65 to 85 years of age, N=16) were evaluated in a controlled clinical study. The elderly subject population had reduced renal function (creatinine clearance [-20%]) compared to young adults. Following a single oral 100 mg dose, maximum plasma concentration for elderly and young adults was achieved at approximately 1 to 2 hours. Reflecting the primary renal elimination of topiramate, topiramate plasma and renal clearance were reduced 21% and 19%, respectively, in elderly subjects, compared to young adults. Similarly, topiramate half-life was longer (13%) in the elderly. Reduced topiramate clearance resulted in slightly higher maximum plasma concentration (23%) and AUC (25%) in elderly subjects than observed in young adults. Topiramate clearance is decreased in the elderly only to the extent that renal function is reduced [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5)].
Clearance of topiramate in adults was not affected by gender or race.
Pharmacokinetics of topiramate were evaluated in patients age 2 to <16 years. Patients received either no or a combination of other antiepileptic drugs. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed on the basis of pharmacokinetic data from relevant topiramate clinical studies. This dataset contained data from 1217 subjects including 258 pediatric patients age 2 to <16 years (95 pediatric patients <10 years of age).
Pediatric patients on adjunctive treatment exhibited a higher oral clearance (L/h) of topiramate compared to patients on monotherapy, presumably because of increased clearance from concomitant enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. In comparison, topiramate clearance per kg is greater in pediatric patients than in adults and in young pediatric patients (down to 2 years) than in older pediatric patients. Consequently, the plasma drug concentration for the same mg/kg/day dose would be lower in pediatric patients compared to adults and also in younger pediatric patients compared to older pediatric patients. Clearance was independent of dose.
As in adults, hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs decrease the steady state plasma concentrations of topiramate.
In vitro studies indicate that topiramate does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 isozymes. In vitro studies indicate that topiramate is a mild inhibitor of CYP2C19 and a mild inducer of CYP3A4.
Antiepileptic Drugs Potential interactions between topiramate and standard AEDs were assessed in controlled clinical pharmacokinetic studies in patients with epilepsy. The effects of these interactions on mean plasma AUCs are summarized in Table 10.
In Table 10, the second column (AED concentration) describes what happens to the concentration of the co-administered AED listed in the first column when topiramate is added. The third column (topiramate concentration) describes how the coadministration of a drug listed in the first column modifies the concentration of topiramate when compared to topiramate given alone.
|AED Coadministered||AED Concentration||Topiramate Concentration|
NC or 25% increase *
CBZ epoxide †
NC at TPM doses up to 400 mg/day
- NC = Less than 10% change in plasma concentration.
AED = Antiepileptic drug.
NE = Not Evaluated.
TPM = Topiramate
In a pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy volunteers with a concomitantly administered combination oral contraceptive product containing 1 mg norethindrone (NET) plus 35 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE), topiramate, given in the absence of other medications at doses of 50 to 200 mg/day, was not associated with statistically significant changes in mean exposure (AUC) to either component of the oral contraceptive. In another study, exposure to EE was statistically significantly decreased at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/day (18%, 21%, and 30%, respectively) when given as adjunctive therapy in patients taking valproic acid. In both studies, topiramate (50 mg/day to 800 mg/day) did not significantly affect exposure to NET and there was no significant dose-dependent change in EE exposure for doses of 50 to 200 mg/day. The clinical significance of the changes observed is not known [see Drug Interactions ( 7.4)].
In a single-dose study, serum digoxin AUC was decreased by 12% with concomitant topiramate administration. The clinical relevance of this observation has not been established.
A drug interaction study conducted in healthy volunteers evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetics of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (25 mg every 24 hours) and topiramate (96 mg every 12 hours) when administered alone and concomitantly. The results of this study indicate that topiramate C max increased by 27% and AUC increased by 29% when HCTZ was added to topiramate. The clinical significance of this change is unknown. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of HCTZ were not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of topiramate. Clinical laboratory results indicated decreases in serum potassium after topiramate or HCTZ administration, which were greater when HCTZ and topiramate were administered in combination.
A drug interaction study conducted in healthy volunteers evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin (500 mg every 12 hours) and topiramate in plasma when metformin was given alone and when metformin and topiramate (100 mg every 12 hours) were given simultaneously. The results of this study indicated that the mean metformin C max and AUC 0-12h increased by 18% and 25%, respectively, when topiramate was added. Topiramate did not affect metformin t max. The clinical significance of the effect of topiramate on metformin pharmacokinetics is not known. Oral plasma clearance of topiramate appears to be reduced when administered with metformin. The clinical significance of the effect of metformin on topiramate pharmacokinetics is unclear.
A drug interaction study conducted in healthy volunteers evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetics of topiramate and pioglitazone when administered alone and concomitantly. A 15% decrease in the AUC τ,ss of pioglitazone with no alteration in C max,ss was observed. This finding was not statistically significant. In addition, a 13% and 16% decrease in C max,ss and AUC τ,ss respectively, of the active hydroxy-metabolite was noted as well as a 60% decrease in C max,ss and AUC τ,ss of the active keto-metabolite. The clinical significance of these findings is not known.
A drug-drug interaction study conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetics of glyburide (5 mg/day) alone and concomitantly with topiramate (150 mg/day). There was a 22% decrease in C max and a 25% reduction in AUC 24 for glyburide during topiramate administration. Systemic exposure (AUC) of the active metabolites, 4- trans -hydroxy-glyburide (M1) and 3- cis -hydroxyglyburide (M2), was also reduced by 13% and 15%, and C max was reduced by 18% and 25%, respectively. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of topiramate were unaffected by concomitant administration of glyburide.
In patients, the pharmacokinetics of lithium were unaffected during treatment with topiramate at doses of 200 mg/day; however, there was an observed increase in systemic exposure of lithium (27% for C max and 26% for AUC) following topiramate doses up to 600 mg/day [see Drug Interactions ( 7.7)].
The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of haloperidol (5 mg) were not affected following multiple dosing of topiramate (100 mg every 12 hr) in 13 healthy adults (6 males, 7 females).
There was a 12% increase in AUC and C max for amitriptyline (25 mg per day) in 18 healthy subjects (9 males, 9 females) receiving 200 mg/day of topiramate.
Multiple dosing of topiramate (100 mg every 12 hours) in 24 healthy volunteers (14 males, 10 females) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of single-dose sumatriptan either orally (100 mg) or subcutaneously (6 mg).
When administered concomitantly with topiramate at escalating doses of 100, 250, and 400 mg/day, there was a reduction in risperidone systemic exposure (16% and 33% for steady-state AUC at the 250 and 400 mg/day doses of topiramate). No alterations of 9-hydroxyrisperidone levels were observed. Coadministration of topiramate 400 mg/day with risperidone resulted in a 14% increase in C max and a 12% increase in AUC 12 of topiramate. There were no clinically significant changes in the systemic exposure of risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone or of topiramate; therefore, this interaction is not likely to be of clinical significance.
Multiple dosing of topiramate (200 mg/day) in 34 healthy volunteers (17 males, 17 females) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of propranolol following daily 160 mg doses. Propranolol doses of 160 mg/day in 39 volunteers (27 males, 12 females) had no effect on the exposure to topiramate, at a dose of 200 mg/day of topiramate.
Multiple dosing of topiramate (200 mg/day) in 24 healthy volunteers (12 males, 12 females) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of a 1 mg subcutaneous dose of dihydroergotamine. Similarly, a 1 mg subcutaneous dose of dihydroergotamine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of a 200 mg/day dose of topiramate in the same study.
Coadministration of diltiazem (240 mg Cardizem CD ®) with topiramate (150 mg/day) resulted in a 10% decrease in C max and a 25% decrease in diltiazem AUC, a 27% decrease in C max and an 18% decrease in des-acetyl diltiazem AUC, and no effect on N-desmethyl diltiazem. Coadministration of topiramate with diltiazem resulted in a 16% increase in C max and a 19% increase in AUC 12 of topiramate.
Multiple dosing of topiramate (150 mg/day) in healthy volunteers did not affect the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine or O-desmethyl venlafaxine. Multiple dosing of venlafaxine (150 mg) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of topiramate.
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