Topiramate (Page 9 of 11)

14.3 Preventive Treatment of Migraine

Adult Patients The results of 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials established the effectiveness of topiramate in the preventive treatment of migraine. The design of both trials (Study 11 was conducted in the U.S. and Study 12 was conducted in the U.S. and Canada) was identical, enrolling patients with a history of migraine, with or without aura, for at least 6 months, according to the International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria. Patients with a history of cluster headaches or basilar, ophthalmoplegic, hemiplegic, or transformed migraine headaches were excluded from the trials. Patients were required to have completed up to a 2-week washout of any prior migraine preventive medications before starting the baseline phase. Patients who experienced 3 to 12 migraine headaches over the 4 weeks in the baseline phase were randomized to either topiramate 50 mg/day, 100 mg/day, 200 mg/day, or placebo and treated for a total of 26 weeks (8-week titration period and 18-week maintenance period). Treatment was initiated at 25 mg/day for one week, and then the daily dosage was increased by 25 mg increments each week until reaching the assigned target dose or maximum tolerated dose (administered twice daily).

Effectiveness of treatment was assessed by the reduction in migraine headache frequency, as measured by the change in 4-week migraine rate (according to migraines classified by IHS criteria) from the baseline phase to double-blind treatment period in each topiramate treatment group compared to placebo in the Intent-To-Treat (ITT) population.

In Study 11, a total of 469 patients (416 females, 53 males), ranging in age from 13 to 70 years, were randomized and provided efficacy data. Two hundred sixty-five patients completed the entire 26-week double-blind phase. The median average daily dosages were 48 mg/day, 88 mg/day, and 132 mg/day in the target dose groups of topiramate 50, 100, and 200 mg/day, respectively.

The mean migraine headache frequency rate at baseline was approximately 5.5 migraine headaches/28 days and was similar across treatment groups. The change in the mean 4-week migraine headache frequency from baseline to the double-blind phase was -1.3, -2.1, and -2.2 in the topiramate 50, 100, and 200 mg/day groups, respectively, versus -0.8 in the placebo group (see Figure 2). The treatment differences between the topiramate 100 and 200 mg/day groups versus placebo were similar and statistically significant (p<0.001 for both comparisons).

In Study 12, a total of 468 patients (406 females, 62 males), ranging in age from 12 to 65 years, were randomized and provided efficacy data. Two hundred fifty-five patients completed the entire 26-week double-blind phase. The median average daily dosages were 47 mg/day, 86 mg/day, and 150 mg/day in the target dose groups of topiramate 50, 100, and 200 mg/day, respectively.

The mean migraine headache frequency rate at baseline was approximately 5.5 migraine headaches/28 days and was similar across treatment groups. The change in the mean 4-week migraine headache period frequency from baseline to the double-blind phase was -1.4, -2.1, and -2.4 in the topiramate 50, 100, and 200 mg/day groups, respectively, versus -1.1 in the placebo group (see Figure 2). The differences between the topiramate 100 and 200 mg/day groups versus placebo were similar and statistically significant (p=0.008 and p <0.001, respectively).

In both studies, there were no apparent differences in treatment effect within age or gender subgroups. Because most patients were Caucasian, there were insufficient numbers of patients from different races to make a meaningful comparison of race.

For patients withdrawing from topiramate, daily dosages were decreased in weekly intervals by 25 to 50 mg/day.

Figure 2 Reduction in 4-Week Migraine Headache Frequency (Studies 11 and 12 for adults and adolescents)

Figure 2 Reduction in 4-Week Migraine Headache Frequency (Studies 11 and 12 for adults and adolescents)
(click image for full-size original)

Pediatric Patients 12 to 17 Years of Age The effectiveness of topiramate for the preventive treatment of migraine in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age was established in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial (Study 13). The study enrolled 103 patients (40 male, 63 female) 12 to 17 years of age with episodic migraine headaches with or without aura. Patient selection was based on IHS criteria for migraines (using proposed revisions to the 1988 IHS pediatric migraine criteria [IHS-R criteria]).

Patients who experienced 3 to 12 migraine attacks (according to migraines classified by patient reported diaries) and ≤14 headache days (migraine and non-migraine) during the 4-week prospective baseline period were randomized to either topiramate 50 mg/day, 100 mg/day, or placebo and treated for a total of 16 weeks (4-week titration period followed by a 12-week maintenance period). Treatment was initiated at 25 mg/day for one week, and then the daily dosage was increased by 25 mg increments each week until reaching the assigned target dose or maximum tolerated dose (administered twice daily). Approximately 80% or more patients in each treatment group completed the study. The median average daily dosages were 45 and 79 mg/day in the target dose groups of topiramate 50 and 100 mg/day, respectively.

Effectiveness of treatment was assessed by comparing each topiramate treatment group to placebo (ITT population) for the percent reduction from baseline to the last 12 weeks of the double-blind phase in the monthly migraine attack rate (primary endpoint). The percent reduction from baseline to the last 12 weeks of the double-blind phase in average monthly migraine attack rate is shown in Table 13. The 100 mg topiramate dose produced a statistically significant treatment difference relative to placebo of 28% reduction from baseline in the monthly migraine attack rate.

The mean reduction from baseline to the last 12 weeks of the double-blind phase in average monthly attack rate, a key secondary efficacy endpoint in Study 13 (and the primary efficacy endpoint in Studies 11 and 12, of adults) was 3.0 for 100 mg topiramate dose and 1.7 for placebo. This 1.3 treatment difference in mean reduction from baseline of monthly migraine rate was statistically significant (p = 0.0087).

Table 13 Percent Reduction from Baseline to the Last 12 Weeks of Double-Blind Phase in Average Monthly Attack Rate: Study 13 (Intent-to-Treat Analysis Set)
*
P-values (two-sided) for comparisons relative to placebo are generated by applying an ANCOVA model on ranks that includes subject’s stratified age at baseline, treatment group, and analysis center as factors and monthly migraine attack rate during baseline period as a covariate.
P-values for the dose groups are the adjusted p-value according to the Hochberg multiple comparison procedure.
Indicates p-value is <0.05 (two-sided).

Placebo

Topiramate

Topiramate

50 mg/day

100 mg/day

Category

(N=33)

(N=35)

(N=35)

Baseline

Median

3.6

4

4

Last 12 Weeks of Double-Blind Phase

Median

2.3

2.3

1

Percent Reduction (%)

Median

44.4

44.6

72.2

P-value versus Placebo *,

0.7975

0.0164

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