Do not prescribe tramadol hydrochloride tablets for patients who are suicidal or addiction-prone.
- Consideration should be given to the use of non-narcotic analgesics in patients who are suicidal or depressed [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
- Prescribe tramadol hydrochloride tablets with caution for patients with a history of misuse and/or are currently taking CNS-active drugs including tranquilizers or antidepressant drugs, alcohol in excess, and patients who suffer from emotional disturbance or depression [see Drug Interactions (7)].
- Inform patients not to exceed the recommended dose and to limit their intake of alcohol [see Dosage and Administration (2),Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
5.12 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
The use of tramadol hydrochloride tablets in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease
Tramadol hydrochloride tablets -treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosage of tramadol hydrochloride tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating tramadol hydrochloride tablets and when tramadol hydrochloride tablets are given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7); Drug Interactions (7)]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
Tramadol hydrochloride tablets may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g. phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of tramadol hydrochloride tablets. In patients with circulatory shock, tramadol hydrochloride tablets may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride tablets in patients with circulatory shock.
5.14 Risks of use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), tramadol hydrochloride tablets may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with tramadol hydrochloride tablets. Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride tablets in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Tramadol hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Contraindications (4)].
The tramadol in tramadol hydrochloride tablets may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis for worsening symptoms.
Serious and rarely fatal anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with tramadol hydrochloride tablets. When these events do occur it is often following the first dose. Other reported allergic reactions include pruritus, hives, bronchospasm, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to tramadol and other opioids may be at increased risk and therefore should not receive tramadol hydrochloride tablets [see Contraindications (4)]. If anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity occurs, stop administration of tramadol hydrochloride tablets immediately, discontinue tramadol hydrochloride tablets permanently, and do not rechallenge with any formulation of tramadol. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction. [see Contraindications (4); Patient Counselling Information (17)].
Do not abruptly discontinue tramadol hydrochloride tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing tramadol hydrochloride tablets in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of tramadol in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including tramadol hydrochloride tablets. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Tramadol hydrochloride tablets may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of tramadol hydrochloride tablets and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counselling Information (17)].
Hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) has been reported with the use of tramadol, and many cases are severe (sodium level < 120 mmol/L). Most cases of hyponatremia occurred in females over the age of 65 and within the first week of therapy. In some reports, hyponatremia resulted from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Monitor for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia (e.g., confusion, disorientation), during treatment with tramadol hydrochloride tablets, especially during initiation of therapy. If signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are present, initiate appropriate treatment (e.g., fluid restriction) and discontinue tramadol hydrochloride tablets [see Dosage and Administration: Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of Tramadol Hydrochloride Tablets (2.5)].
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