There are no animal or laboratory studies on the combination product (tramadol and acetaminophen) to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility. Data on the individual components are described below.
A slight but statistically significant increase in two common murine tumors, pulmonary and hepatic, was observed in an NMRI mouse carcinogenicity study, particularly in aged mice. Mice were dosed orally up to 30 mg/kg in the drinking water (0.5 times the maximum recommended daily human dosage or MRHD) for approximately two years, although the study was not done with the Maximum Tolerated Dose. This finding is not believed to suggest risk in humans. No evidence of carcinogenicity was noted in a rat 2-year carcinogenicity study testing oral doses of up to 30 mg/kg in the drinking water (1 times the MRHD).
Long-term studies in mice and rats have been completed by the National Toxicology Program to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of acetaminophen. In 2-year feeding studies, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were fed a diet containing acetaminophen up to 6000 ppm. Female rats demonstrated equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity based on increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia at 1.2 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 2.6 grams/day, based on a body surface area comparison. In contrast, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity in male rats (1.1 times) or mice (1.9 to 2.2 times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison).
Tramadol was mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation in the mouse lymphoma assay. Tramadol was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay using Salmonella and E. coli (Ames), the mouse lymphoma assay in the absence of metabolic activation, the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay, or the in vivo micronucleus assay in bone marrow.
Acetaminophen was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). In contrast, acetaminophen tested positive for induction of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in in vitro assays using Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the published literature, acetaminophen has been reported to be clastogenic when administered a dose of 1500 mg/kg/day to the rat model (3.6-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison). In contrast, no clastogenicity was noted at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day (2.8-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison), suggesting a threshold effect.
Impairment of Fertility
No effects on fertility were observed for tramadol at oral dose levels up to 50 mg/kg in male rats and 75 mg/kg in female rats. These dosages are 1.6 and 2.4 times the MRHD [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
In studies of acetaminophen conducted by the National Toxicology Program, fertility assessments have been completed in Swiss mice via a continuous breeding study. There were no effects on fertility parameters in mice consuming up to 1.7 times the MHDD of acetaminophen, based on a body surface area comparison. Although there was no effect on sperm motility or sperm density in the epididymis, there was a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in mice consuming 1.7 times the MHDD (based on a body surface area comparison) and there was a reduction in the number of mating pairs producing a fifth litter at this dose, suggesting the potential for cumulative toxicity with chronic administration of acetaminophen near the upper limit of daily dosing.
Published studies in rodents report that oral acetaminophen treatment of male animals at doses that are 1.2 times the MHDD and greater (based on a body surface area comparison) result in decreased testicular weights, reduced spermatogenesis, reduced fertility, and reduced implantation sites in females given the same doses. These effects appear to increase with the duration of treatment. The clinical significance of these findings is not known.
In single-dose studies in acute pain, two tablets of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen administered to patients with pain following oral surgical procedures provided greater relief than placebo or either of the individual components given at the same dose. The onset of pain relief after tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen was faster than tramadol alone. Onset of analgesia occurred in less than one hour. The duration of pain relief after tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen was longer than acetaminophen alone. Analgesia was generally comparable to that of the comparator, ibuprofen.
NDC: 50090-0919-0 20 TABLET in a BOTTLE
NDC: 50090-0919-1 30 TABLET in a BOTTLE
NDC: 50090-0919-2 60 TABLET in a BOTTLE
NDC: 50090-0919-4 90 TABLET in a BOTTLE
NDC: 50090-0919-3 120 TABLET in a BOTTLE
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Storage and Disposal
Because of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.20), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)]. Inform patients that leaving tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home.
Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Inform patients that medicine take-back options are the preferred way to safely dispose of most types of unneeded medicines. If no take back programs or Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)-registered collectors are available, instruct patients to dispose of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets by following these four steps:
- Mix tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets (do not crush) with an unpalatable substance such as dirt, cat litter, or used coffee grounds;
- Place the mixture in a container such as a sealed plastic bag;
- Throw the container in the household trash;
- Delete all personal information on the prescription label of the empty bottle.
Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for additional information on disposal of unused medicines.
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Inform patients that the use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Instruct patients not to share tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen with others and to take steps to protect tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen from theft or misuse.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Advise patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop.
Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-threatening Respiratory Depression in Children
Advise caregivers that tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Advise caregivers of children 12 to 18 years of age receiving tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen to monitor for signs of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Interactions with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants
Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8), Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that tramadol could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, particularly during concomitant use with serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms and signs of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Inform patients not to take tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may cause seizures with concomitant use of serotonergic agents (including SSRIs, SNRIs, and triptans) or drugs that significantly reduce the metabolic clearance of tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].
Important Administration Instructions
Instruct patients how to properly take tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
- Do not adjust the dose of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen without consulting with a physician or other healthcare provider.
- Do not take more than 4,000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day and to call their healthcare provider if they took more than the recommended dose.
Important Discontinuation Instructions
In order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Inform patients that tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].
Inform patients that anaphylaxis have been reported with ingredients contained in tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.18), Adverse Reactions (6)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen should not be used for more than 5 days and that prolonged use of opioids such as tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen can cause fetal harm and to inform the healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3) ].
Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery
Inform patients that tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.21)].
Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Maximum Daily Acetaminophen Use
Use with Other Acetaminophen-Containing Products
Advise patients not to take tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in combination with other tramadol or acetaminophen-containing products, including over-the-counter preparations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.19)].
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