There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants at 1-844-405-6185 or visiting online at https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/antidepressants/
Published prospective cohort studies, case series, and case reports over several decades with trazodone hydrochloride tablets use in pregnant women have not identified any drug-associated risks of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). Trazodone hydrochloride has been shown to cause increased fetal resorption and other adverse effects on the fetus in the rat when given at dose levels approximately 7.3 to 11 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg/day in adults on a mg/m2 basis. There was also an increase in congenital anomalies in the rabbit at approximately 7.3 to 22 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryofetal risk
A prospective, longitudinal study followed 201 pregnant women with a history of major depressive disorder who were euthymic and taking antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy. The women who discontinued antidepressants during pregnancy were more likely to experience a relapse of major depression that women who continued antidepressants. Consider the risk of untreated depression when discontinuing or changing treatment with antidepressant medication during pregnancy and postpartum.
While available studies cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, published data from prospective cohort studies, case series, and case reports over several decades have not identified an association with trazodone use during pregnancy and major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. All available studies have methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups.
No teratogenic effects were observed when trazodone was given to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at oral doses up to 450 mg/kg/day. This dose is 11 and 22 times, in rats and rabbits, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg/day in adults on a mg/m2 basis. Increased fetal resorption and other adverse effects on the fetus in rats at 7.3 to 11 times the MRHD and increase in congenital anomalies in rabbits at 7.3 to 22 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis were observed. No further details on these studies are available.
Data from published literature report the transfer of trazodone into human milk. There are no data on the effect of trazodone on milk production. Limited data from postmarketing reports have not identified and association of adverse effects on the breastfed child. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for trazodone hydrochloride tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from trazodone hydrochloride tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established. Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric patients [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Reported clinical literature and experience with trazodone has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. However, as experience in the elderly with trazodone hydrochloride is limited, it should be used with caution in geriatric patients.
Serotonergic antidepressants have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ].
Although trazodone hydrochloride has not been systematically studied in preclinical or clinical studies for its potential for abuse, no indication of drug-seeking behavior was seen in the clinical studies with trazodone hydrochloride.
Death from overdose has occurred in patients ingesting trazodone and other CNS depressant drugs concurrently (alcohol; alcohol and chloral hydrate and diazepam; amobarbital; chlordiazepoxide; or meprobamate).
The most severe reactions reported to have occurred with overdose of trazodone alone have been priapism, respiratory arrest, seizures, and ECG changes, including QT prolongation. The reactions reported most frequently have been drowsiness and vomiting. Overdosage may cause an increase in incidence or severity of any of the reported adverse reactions.
There is no specific antidote for trazodone hydrochloride overdose. In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. For current information on the management of poisoning or overdose, contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org).
Trazodone hydrochloride is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5HT2 receptor antagonist. Trazodone hydrochloride, USP is a triazolopyridine derivative designated as 2-[3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl]- 1,2,4-triazolo[4, 3-a]pyridin-3(2H)-one hydrochloride. It is a white to off-white, crystalline powder which is sparingly soluble in chloroform and in water. The structural formula is represented as follows:
Molecular Weight: 408.33
Each trazodone hydrochloride tablet, USP for oral administration contains 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg or 300 mg of trazodone hydrochloride, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, and sodium starch glycolate.
The USP Dissolution Test is pending.
The mechanism of trazodone’s antidepressant action is not fully understood, but is thought to be related to its enhancement of serotonergic activity in the CNS. Trazodone is both a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a 5HT2 receptor antagonist and the net result of this action on serotonergic transmission and its role in trazodone’s antidepressant effect is unknown.
Preclinical studies have shown that trazodone selectively inhibits neuronal reuptake of serotonin (Ki = 367 nM) and acts as an antagonist at 5-HT-2A (Ki = 35.6 nM) serotonin receptors. Trazodone is also an antagonist at several other monoaminergic receptors including 5-HT2B (Ki = 78.4 nM), 5-HT2C (Ki = 224 nM), α1A (Ki = 153 nM), α2C (Ki = 155 nM) receptors and it is a partial agonist at 5HT1A (Ki = 118 nM) receptor.
Trazodone antagonizes alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, a property which may be associated with postural hypotension.
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