There are no studies of Tribenzor in patients with renal impairment. Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min).
Olmesartan medoxomil. Patients with renal insufficiency have elevated serum concentrations of olmesartan compared with patients with normal renal function. After repeated dosing, AUC was approximately tripled in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <20 mL/min). No initial dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate to marked renal impairment (creatinine clearance <40 mL/min). The pharmacokinetics of olmesartan in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not been studied.
Amlodipine. The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine are not significantly influenced by renal impairment.
Hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide should be used with caution in patients with severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.
Of the total number of patients who received Tribenzor in a randomized trial, 29% (184/627) were black. Tribenzor was effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in black patients (usually a low-renin population) to the same extent as in non-black patients.
There is no information on overdosage with Tribenzor in humans.
Olmesartan medoxomil. Limited data are available related to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia could be encountered if parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation occurs. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be initiated. The dialyzability of olmesartan is unknown.
Amlodipine. Single oral doses of amlodipine maleate equivalent to 40 mg amlodipine/kg and 100 mg amlodipine/kg in mice and rats, respectively, caused deaths. Single oral amlodipine maleate doses equivalent to 4 or more mg amlodipine/kg or higher in dogs (11 or more times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis) caused a marked peripheral vasodilation and hypotension.
Overdosage might be expected to cause excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked hypotension and possibly a reflex tachycardia. In humans, experience with intentional overdosage of amlodipine is limited.
If massive overdose should occur, active cardiac and respiratory monitoring should be instituted. Frequent blood pressure measurements are essential. Should hypotension occur, cardiovascular support including elevation of the extremities and the judicious administration of fluids should be initiated. If hypotension remains unresponsive to these conservative measures, administration of vasopressors (such as phenylephrine) should be considered with attention to circulating volume and urine output. Intravenous calcium gluconate may help to reverse the effects of calcium entry blockade. As amlodipine is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not likely to be of benefit.
Hydrochlorothiazide. The most common signs and symptoms of overdose observed in humans are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats, more than 1000-fold the highest recommended human dose.
Tribenzor provided as a tablet for oral administration, is a fixed combination of olmesartan medoxomil (ARB), amlodipine (CCB), and hydrochlorothiazide (thiazide diuretic).
Olmesartan medoxomil, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed to olmesartan during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
The olmesartan medoxomil component of Tribenzor is chemically described as 2,3-dihydroxy-2-butenyl 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-propyl-1-[p-(o- 1H -tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]imidazole-5-carboxylate, cyclic 2,3-carbonate. Its empirical formula is C29 H30 N6 O6 .
The amlodipine besylate component of Tribenzor is chemically described as 3-ethyl-5-methyl (±)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, monobenzenesulphonate. Its empirical formula is C20 H25 ClN2 O5 •C6 H6 O3 S.
The hydrochlorothiazide component of Tribenzor is chemically described as 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H -1,2,4-benzo-thiazidiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. Its empirical formula is C7 H8 ClN3 O4 S2 .
The structural formula for olmesartan medoxomil is:
The structural formula for amlodipine besylate is:
The structural formula for hydrochlorothiazide is:
Tribenzor contains olmesartan medoxomil, a white to light yellowish-white powder or crystalline powder, amlodipine besylate, a white to off-white crystalline powder, and hydrochlorothiazide, a white or practically white, crystalline powder. The molecular weights of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate, and hydrochlorothiazide are 558.6, 567.1, and 297.7, respectively. Olmesartan medoxomil is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in methanol. Amlodipine besylate is slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol. Hydrochlorothiazide is slightly soluble in water but freely soluble in sodium hydroxide solution.
Each tablet of Tribenzor also contains the following inactive ingredients: silicified microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The color coating contains polyvinyl alcohol, macrogol/polyethylene glycol 3350, titanium dioxide, talc, iron oxide yellow (20 /5 /12.5 mg, 40 /5 /12.5 mg, 40 /5 /25 mg, 40 /10 /12.5 mg, and 40 /10 /25 mg tablets), iron oxide red (20 /5 /12.5 mg, 40 /10 /12.5 mg, and 40 /10 /25 mg tablets), and iron oxide black (20 /5 /12.5 mg tablets).
The active ingredients of Tribenzor target three separate mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation. Specifically, amlodipine blocks the contractile effects of calcium on cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells; olmesartan medoxomil blocks the vasoconstriction and sodium retaining effects of angiotensin II on cardiac, vascular smooth muscle, adrenal and renal cells; and hydrochlorothiazide directly promotes the excretion of sodium and chloride in the kidney leading to reductions in intravascular volume. For a more detailed description of the mechanisms of action for each individual component, see below.
Olmesartan medoxomil. Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by ACE, kininase II. Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorption of sodium. Olmesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor in vascular smooth muscle. Its action is, therefore, independent of the pathways for angiotensin II synthesis.
An AT2 receptor is found also in many tissues, but this receptor is not known to be associated with cardiovascular homeostasis. Olmesartan has more than a 12,500-fold greater affinity for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor.
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors, which inhibit the biosynthesis of angiotensin II from angiotensin I, is a mechanism of many drugs used to treat hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors also inhibit the degradation of bradykinin, a reaction also catalyzed by ACE. Because olmesartan does not inhibit ACE (kininase II), it does not affect the response to bradykinin. Whether this difference has clinical relevance is not yet known.
Blockade of the angiotensin II receptor inhibits the negative regulatory feedback of angiotensin II on renin secretion, but the resulting increased plasma renin activity and circulating angiotensin II levels do not overcome the effect of olmesartan on blood pressure.
Amlodipine. Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Experimental data suggests that amlodipine binds to both dihydropyridine and nonhydropyridine binding sites. The contractile processes of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle are dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium ions into these cells through specific ion channels. Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes selectively, with a greater effect on vascular smooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells. Negative inotropic effects can be detected in vitro but such effects have not been seen in intact animals at therapeutic doses. Serum calcium concentration is not affected by amlodipine. Within the physiologic pH range, amlodipine is an ionized compound (pKa=8.6), and its kinetic interaction with the calcium channel receptor is characterized by a gradual rate of association and dissociation with the receptor binding site, resulting in a gradual onset of effect.
Amlodipine is a peripheral arterial vasodilator that acts directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and reduction in blood pressure.
Hydrochlorothiazide. Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. Thiazides affect the renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption, directly increasing excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Indirectly, the diuretic action of hydrochlorothiazide reduces plasma volume, with consequent increases in plasma renin activity, increases in aldosterone secretion, increases in urinary potassium loss, and decreases in serum potassium. The renin-aldosterone link is mediated by angiotensin II, so co-administration of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist tends to reverse the potassium loss associated with these diuretics.
The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is not fully understood.
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