TRIMETHOPRIM- trimethoprim tablet
Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of trimethoprim tablets and other antibacterial drugs, trimethoprim tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial available in tablet form for oral administration. Each scored white tablet contains 100 mg trimethoprim.
Trimethoprim is 5-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-2,4-pyrimidinediamine. It is a white to light yellow, odorless, bitter compound with a molecular weight of 290.32 and the molecular formula C 14 H 18 N 4 O 3. The structural formula is:
Anhydrous Lactose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Pregelatinized Starch, Sodium Starch Glycolate Type A, Magnesium Stearate.
FDA approved dissolution test specifications differ from USP.
Trimethoprim is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. It exists in the blood as unbound, protein-bound, and metabolized forms. Ten to twenty percent of trimethoprim is metabolized, primarily in the liver; the remainder is excreted unchanged in the urine. The principal metabolites of trimethoprim are the 1- and 3-oxides and the 3′- and 4′- hydroxy derivatives. The free form is considered to be the therapeutically active form. Approximately 44% of trimethoprim is bound to plasma proteins.
Mean peak serum concentrations of approximately 1.0 mcg/mL occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration of a single 100 mg dose. A single 200 mg dose will result in serum levels approximately twice as high. The half-life of trimethoprim ranges from 8 to 10 hours. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-life of trimethoprim, which requires either dosage regimen adjustment or not using the drug in such patients (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). During a 13-week study of trimethoprim administered at a daily dosage of 200 mg (50 mg q.i.d.), the mean minimum steady-state concentration of the drug was 1.1 mcg/mL. Steady-state concentrations were achieved within 2 to 3 days of chronic administration and were maintained throughout the experimental period.
Excretion of trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. After a single oral dose of 100 mg, urine concentrations of trimethoprim ranged from 30 to 160 mcg/mL during the 0 to 4 hour period and declined to approximately 18 to 91 mcg/mL during the 8 to 24 hour period. A 200 mg single oral dose will result in trimethoprim urine levels approximately twice as high. After oral administration, 50% to 60% of trimethoprim is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, approximately 80% of this being unmetabolized trimethoprim.
Since normal vaginal and fecal flora are the source of most pathogens causing urinary tract infections, it is relevant to consider the distribution of trimethoprim into these sites. Concentrations of trimethoprim in vaginal secretions are consistently greater than those found simultaneously in the serum, being typically 1.6 times the concentrations of simultaneously obtained serum samples. Sufficient trimethoprim is excreted in the feces to markedly reduce or eliminate trimethoprim-susceptible organisms from the fecal flora.
Trimethoprim also passes the placental barrier and is excreted in human milk.
Mechanism of Action
Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. This binding is very much stronger for the bacterial enzyme than for the corresponding mammalian enzyme. Thus, trimethoprim selectively interferes with bacterial biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.
Resistance to trimethoprim may be conferred by a variety of mechanisms including cell wall impermeability, overproduction of the chromosomal dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme, production of a resistant chromosomal DHFR enzyme or production of a plasmid-mediated trimethoprim-resistant DHFR enzyme. Acinetobacter baumannii/Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are intrinsically resistant to trimethoprim. Non- Enterobacteriaceae fecal organisms, Bacteroides spp. and Lactobacillus spp. are not susceptible to trimethoprim at the concentrations obtained with the recommended dosage. Enterococcus spp, (E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum/E. casseliflavus) may appear active in vitro to trimethoprim but are not effective clinically and should not be reported as susceptible. Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were found consistently resistant to trimethoprim.
Trimethoprim has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.
Aerobic gram-positive bacteria
Staphylococcus species (coagulase-negative strains, including S. saprophyticus)
Aerobic gram-negative bacteria
Susceptibility Test Methods
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria, and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: http://www.fda.gov/STIC.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of trimethoprim tablets and other antibacterial drugs, trimethoprim tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
For the treatment of initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter species, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, including S. saprophyticus.
Cultures and susceptibility tests should be performed to determine the susceptibility of the bacteria to trimethoprim. Therapy may be initiated prior to obtaining the results of these tests.
Trimethoprim is contraindicated in individuals hypersensitive to trimethoprim and in those with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency
Serious hypersensitivity reactions have been reported rarely in patients on trimethoprim therapy. Trimethoprim has been reported rarely to interfere with hematopoiesis, especially when administered in large doses and/or for prolonged periods.
The presence of clinical signs such as sore throat, fever, pallor, or purpura may be early indications of serious blood disorders (see OVERDOSAGE , Chronic).
Complete blood counts should be obtained if any of these signs are noted in a patient receiving trimethoprim and the drug discontinued if a significant reduction in the count of any formed blood element is found.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including trimethoprim tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
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