In clinical studies, 64 (1.6%) TRULICITY-treated patients developed anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to the active ingredient in TRULICITY (i.e., dulaglutide).
Of the 64 dulaglutide-treated patients that developed dulaglutide ADAs, 34 patients (0.9% of the overall population) had dulaglutide-neutralizing antibodies, and 36 patients (0.9% of the overall population) developed antibodies against native GLP-1.
The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, the incidence of antibodies to dulaglutide cannot be directly compared with the incidence of antibodies of other products.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of TRULICITY. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Anaphylactic reactions, angioedema.
- Acute renal failure or worsening of chronic renal failure, sometimes requiring hemodialysis.
TRULICITY delays gastric emptying and thus has the potential to reduce the rate of absorption of concomitantly administered oral medications. The delay in gastric emptying is dose-dependent but is attenuated with the recommended dose escalation to higher doses of TRULICITY [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. The delay is largest after the first dose and diminishes with subsequent doses. In clinical pharmacology studies, TRULICITY 1.5 mg did not affect the absorption of the tested orally administered medications to a clinically relevant degree [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There is limited experience with the use of concomitant medications in clinical trials with TRULICITY doses of 3 mg and 4.5 mg.
Monitor drug levels of oral medications with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., warfarin) when concomitantly administered with TRULICITY.
When initiating TRULICITY, consider reducing the dose of concomitantly administered insulin secretagogues (such as sulfonylureas) or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
Limited data with TRULICITY in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. There are clinical considerations regarding the risks of poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. Based on animal reproduction studies, there may be risks to the fetus from exposure to dulaglutide during pregnancy. TRULICITY should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In pregnant rats administered dulaglutide during organogenesis, early embryonic deaths, fetal growth reductions, and fetal abnormalities occurred at systemic exposures at least 6-times human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 4.5 mg/week. In pregnant rabbits administered dulaglutide during organogenesis, major fetal abnormalities occurred at 5-times human exposure at the MRHD. Adverse embryo/fetal effects in animals occurred in association with decreased maternal weight and food consumption attributed to the pharmacology of dulaglutide [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6–10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20–25% in women with an HbA1c >10%. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia-related morbidity.
Pregnant rats given subcutaneous doses of 0.49, 1.63, or 4.89 mg/kg dulaglutide every 3 days during organogenesis had systemic exposures 2-, 6-, and 18-times human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 4.5 mg/week, respectively, based on plasma area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) comparison. Reduced fetal weights associated with decreased maternal food intake and decreased weight gain attributed to the pharmacology of dulaglutide were observed at ≥1.63 mg/kg. Irregular skeletal ossifications and increases in post-implantation loss also were observed at 4.89 mg/kg.
In pregnant rabbits given subcutaneous doses of 0.04, 0.12, or 0.41 mg/kg dulaglutide every 3 days during organogenesis, systemic exposures in pregnant rabbits were 0.5-, 2-, and 5-times human exposure at the MRHD, based on plasma AUC comparison. Fetal visceral malformation of lung lobular agenesis and skeletal malformations of the vertebrae and/or ribs were observed in conjunction with decreased maternal food intake and decreased weight gain attributed to the pharmacology of dulaglutide at 0.41 mg/kg.
In a prenatal-postnatal study in F0 maternal rats given subcutaneous doses of 0.2, 0.49, or 1.63 mg/kg every third day from implantation through lactation, systemic exposures in pregnant rats were 1-, 2-, and 7-times human exposure at the MRHD, based on plasma AUC comparison. F1 pups from F0 maternal rats given 1.63 mg/kg dulaglutide had statistically significantly lower mean body weight from birth through postnatal day 63 for males and postnatal day 84 for females. F1 offspring from F0 maternal rats receiving 1.63 mg/kg dulaglutide had decreased forelimb and hindlimb grip strength and males had delayed balano-preputial separation. Females had decreased startle response. These physical findings may relate to the decreased size of the offspring relative to controls as they appeared at early postnatal assessments but were not observed at a later assessment. F1 female offspring of the F0 maternal rats given 1.63 mg/kg of dulaglutide had a longer mean escape time and a higher mean number of errors relative to concurrent control during 1 of 2 trials in the memory evaluation portion of the Biel water maze. These findings occurred in conjunction with decreased F0 maternal food intake and decreased weight gain attributed to the pharmacologic activity at 1.63 mg/kg. The human relevance of these memory deficits in the F1 female rats is not known.
There are no data on the presence of dulaglutide in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The presence of dulaglutide in milk of treated lactating animals was not determined. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for TRULICITY and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from TRULICITY or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness of TRULICITY have not been established in pediatric patients. TRULICITY is not recommended for use in pediatric patients younger than 18 years.
In the glycemic control trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] , 620 (18.6%) TRULICITY-treated patients were 65 years of age or older and 65 (1.9%) TRULICITY-treated patients were 75 years of age or older at baseline. In the TRULICITY 1.5 mg treatment arm of the REWIND trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] , a total of 2619 (52.9%) patients were 65 years of age or older, and 484 (9.8%) patients were 75 years of age or older at baseline.
No overall differences in safety or efficacy were detected between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
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