No data are available on the effects of vaccination in patients receiving TYSABRI. No data are available on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines in patients receiving TYSABRI.
The most serious adverse reactions were [see Warnings and Precautions (5) ]:
- Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) were headache and fatigue in both the multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn’s disease (CD) studies. Other common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) in the MS population were arthralgia, urinary tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, vaginitis, depression, pain in extremity, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea NOS, and rash. Other common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) in the CD population were upper respiratory tract infections and nausea.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions resulting in clinical intervention (i.e., discontinuation of TYSABRI), in the MS studies were urticaria (1%) and other hypersensitivity reactions (1%), and in the CD studies (Studies CD1 and CD2) were the exacerbation of Crohn’s disease (4.2%) and acute hypersensitivity reactions (1.5%) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].
A total of 1617 multiple sclerosis patients in controlled studies received TYSABRI, with a median duration of exposure of 28 months. A total of 1563 patients received TYSABRI in all CD studies for a median exposure of 5 months; of these patients, 33% (n=518) received at least one year of treatment and 19% (n=297) received at least two years of treatment.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying and controlled conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of TYSABRI cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of other drugs and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and a basis for approximating rates.
Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Studies
The most frequently reported serious adverse reactions in Study MS1 [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ] with TYSABRI were infections (3.2% versus 2.6% in placebo, including urinary tract infection [0.8% versus 0.3%] and pneumonia [0.6% versus 0%]), acute hypersensitivity reactions (1.1% versus 0.3%, including anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction [0.8% versus 0%]), depression (1.0% versus 1.0%, including suicidal ideation or attempt [0.6% versus 0.3%]), and cholelithiasis (1.0% versus 0.3%). In Study MS2, serious adverse reactions of appendicitis were also more common in patients who received TYSABRI (0.8% versus 0.2% in placebo) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Adverse Reactions -- Infections ].
Table 2 enumerates adverse reactions and selected laboratory abnormalities that occurred in Study MS1 at an incidence of at least 1 percentage point higher in TYSABRI-treated patients than was observed in placebo-treated patients.
|Adverse Reactions (Preferred Term)||TYSABRI n=627 Percentage||Placebo n=312 Percentage|
*Percentage based on female patients only.** Acute versus other hypersensitivity reactions are defined as occurring within 2 hours post-infusion versus more than 2 hours.
|General Headache Fatigue Arthralgia Chest discomfort Acute hypersensitivity reactions** Other hypersensitivity reactions** Seasonal allergy Rigors Weight increased Weight decreasedInfection Urinary tract infection Lower respiratory tract infection Gastroenteritis Vaginitis* Tooth infections Herpes TonsillitisPsychiatric DepressionMusculoskeletal/Connective Tissue Disorders Pain in extremity Muscle cramp Joint swelling||38%27%19%5%4%5%3%3%2%2%21%17%11%10%9%8%7%19%16%5%2%||33%21%14%3%<1%2%2%<1%<1%<1%17%16%9%6%7%7%5%16%14%3%1%|
|Gastrointestinal Abdominal discomfort Diarrhea NOS Abnormal liver function testSkin Rash Dermatitis Pruritus Night sweatsMenstrual Disorders* Irregular menstruation Dysmenorrhea Amenorrhea Ovarian cystNeurologic Disorders Somnolence VertigoRenal and Urinary Disorders Urinary incontinence Urinary urgency/frequencyInjury Limb injury NOS Skin laceration Thermal burn||11%10%5%12%7%4%1%5%3%2%2%2%6%4%9%3%2%1%||10%9%4%9%4%2%0%4%<1%1%<1%<1%5%3%7%2%<1%<1%|
In Study MS2, peripheral edema was more common in patients who received TYSABRI (5% versus 1% in placebo).
Crohn’s Disease Clinical Studies
The following serious adverse events in the induction Studies CD1 and CD2 [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ] were reported more commonly with TYSABRI than placebo and occurred at an incidence of at least 0.3%: intestinal obstruction or stenosis (2% vs. 1% in placebo), acute hypersensitivity reactions (0.5% vs. 0%), abdominal adhesions (0.3% vs. 0%), and cholelithiasis (0.3% vs. 0%). Similar serious adverse events were seen in the maintenance Study CD3. Table 3 enumerates adverse drug reactions that occurred in Studies CD1 and CD2 (median exposure of 2.8 months). Table 4 enumerates adverse drug reactions that occurred in Study CD3 (median exposure of 11.0 months).
|Adverse Reactions*||TYSABRI n=983 Percentage||Placebo n=431 Percentage|
* Occurred at an incidence of at least 1% higher in TYSABRI-treated patients than placebo-treated patients.** Percentage based on female patients only.
|General Headache Fatigue Arthralgia Influenza-like illness Acute hypersensitivity reactions TremorInfection Upper respiratory tract infection Vaginal infections** Viral infection Urinary tract infectionRespiratory Pharyngolaryngeal pain CoughGastrointestinal Nausea Dyspepsia Constipation Flatulence Aphthous stomatitisSkin Rash Dry skinMenstrual Disorder Dysmenorrhea**||32%10%8%5%2%1%22%4%3%3%6%3%17%5%4%3%2%6%1%2%||23%8%6%4%<1%<1%16%2%2%1%4%<1%15%3%2%2%<1%4%0%<1%|
* Occurred at an incidence of at least 2% higher in TYSABRI-treated patients than placebo-treated patients.** Percentage based on female patients only.
|Adverse Reactions*||TYSABRI n=214 Percentage||Placebo n=214 Percentage|
|General Headache Influenza-like illness Toothache Peripheral edemaInfection Influenza Sinusitis Viral infection Vaginal infections** Respiratory CoughGastrointestinal Lower abdominal painMusculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Back painMenstrual Disorder Dysmenorrhea**||37%11%4%6%12%8%7%8%7%4%12%6%||31%6%<1%3%5%4%3%<1%5%2%8%3%|
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in three patients who received TYSABRI in clinical trials [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Two cases of PML were observed in the 1869 patients with multiple sclerosis who were treated for a median of 120 weeks. These two patients had received TYSABRI in addition to interferon beta-1a [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The third case occurred after eight doses in one of the 1043 patients with Crohn’s disease who were evaluated for PML. In the postmarketing setting, additional cases of PML have been reported in TYSABRI-treated multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease patients who were not receiving concomitant immunomodulatory therapy.
In Studies MS1 and MS2 [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ], the rate of any type of infection was approximately 1.5 per patient-year in both TYSABRI-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. The infections were predominately upper respiratory tract infections, influenza, and urinary tract infections. In Study MS1, the incidence of serious infection was approximately 3% in TYSABRI-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. Most patients did not interrupt treatment with TYSABRI during infections. The only opportunistic infection in the multiple sclerosis clinical trials was a case of cryptosporidial gastroenteritis with a prolonged course.
In Studies CD1 and CD2 [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ], the rate of any type of infection was 1.7 per patient-year in TYSABRI-treated patients and 1.4 per patient-year in placebo-treated patients. In Study CD3, the incidence of any type of infection was 1.7 per patient-year in TYSABRI-treated patients and was similar in placebo-treated patients. The most common infections were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and influenza. The majority of patients did not interrupt TYSABRI therapy during infections and recovery occurred with appropriate treatment. Concurrent use of TYSABRI in CD clinical trials with chronic steroids and/or methotrexate, 6-MP, and azathioprine did not result in an increase in overall infections compared to TYSABRI alone; however, the concomitant use of such agents could lead to an increased risk of serious infections.
In Studies CD1 and CD2, the incidence of serious infection was approximately 2.1% in both TYSABRI-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. In Study CD3, the incidence of serious infection was approximately 3.3% in TYSABRI-treated patients and approximately 2.8% in placebo-treated patients.
In clinical studies for CD, opportunistic infections (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary mycobacterium avium intracellulare, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and burkholderia cepacia) have been observed in <1% of TYSABRI-treated patients; some of these patients were receiving concurrent immunosuppressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]. Two serious non-bacterial meningitides occurred in TYSABRI-treated patients compared to none in placebo-treated patients.
An infusion-related reaction was defined in clinical trials as any adverse event occurring within two hours of the start of an infusion. In MS clinical trials, approximately 24% of TYSABRI-treated multiple sclerosis patients experienced an infusion-related reaction, compared to 18% of placebo-treated patients. In the controlled CD clinical trials, infusion-related reactions occurred in approximately 11% of patients treated with TYSABRI compared to 7% of placebo-treated patients. Reactions more common in the TYSABRI-treated MS patients compared to the placebo-treated MS patients included headache, dizziness, fatigue, urticaria, pruritus, and rigors. Acute urticaria was observed in approximately 2% of patients. Other hypersensitivity reactions were observed in 1% of patients receiving TYSABRI. Serious systemic hypersensitivity infusion reactions occurred in <1% of patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. All patients recovered with treatment and/or discontinuation of the infusion.
Infusion-related reactions more common in CD patients receiving TYSABRI than those receiving placebo included headache, nausea, urticaria, pruritus, and flushing. Serious infusion reactions occurred in Studies CD1, CD2, and CD3 at an incidence of <1% in TYSABRI-treated patients.
MS and CD patients who became persistently positive for antibodies to TYSABRI were more likely to have an infusion-related reaction than those who were antibody-negative.
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