TYSABRI- natalizumab injection
TYSABRI increases the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain that usually leads to death or severe disability. Risk factors for the development of PML include the presence of anti-JCV antibodies, duration of therapy, and prior use of immunosuppressants. These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- Healthcare professionals should monitor patients on TYSABRI for any new sign or symptom that may be suggestive of PML. TYSABRI dosing should be withheld immediately at the first sign or symptom suggestive of PML. For diagnosis, an evaluation that includes a gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA are recommended [ see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- Because of the risk of PML, TYSABRI is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the TOUCH® Prescribing Program [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
TYSABRI is indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults. TYSABRI increases the risk of PML [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. When initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI, physicians should consider whether the expected benefit of TYSABRI is sufficient to offset this risk.
TYSABRI is indicated for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease with evidence of inflammation who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, conventional CD therapies and inhibitors of TNF-α. TYSABRI should not be used in combination with immunosuppressants (e.g., 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or methotrexate) or inhibitors of TNF-α [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Only prescribers registered in the MS TOUCH® Prescribing Program may prescribe TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. The recommended dose of TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis is 300 mg intravenous infusion over one hour every four weeks.
Only prescribers registered in the CD TOUCH® Prescribing Program may prescribe TYSABRI for Crohn’s disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
The recommended dose of TYSABRI for Crohn’s disease is 300 mg intravenous infusion over one hour every four weeks. TYSABRI should not be used with concomitant immunosuppressants (e.g., 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or methotrexate) or concomitant inhibitors of TNF-α. Aminosalicylates may be continued during treatment with TYSABRI.
If the patient with Crohn’s disease has not experienced therapeutic benefit by 12 weeks of induction therapy, discontinue TYSABRI. For patients with Crohn’s disease who start TYSABRI while on chronic oral corticosteroids, commence steroid tapering as soon as a therapeutic benefit of TYSABRI has occurred; if the patient with Crohn’s disease cannot be tapered off of oral corticosteroids within six months of starting TYSABRI, discontinue TYSABRI. Other than the initial six-month taper, prescribers should consider discontinuing TYSABRI for patients who require additional steroid use that exceeds three months in a calendar year to control their Crohn’s disease.
- Use aseptic technique when preparing TYSABRI solution for intravenous infusion. Each vial is intended for single use only. Discard any unused portion.
- TYSABRI is a colorless, clear to slightly opalescent solution. Inspect the TYSABRI vial for particulate material and discoloration prior to dilution and administration. If visible particulates are observed and/or the liquid in the vial is discolored, the vial must not be used.
- To prepare the diluted solution, withdraw 15 mL of TYSABRI from the vial using a sterile needle and syringe. Inject TYSABRI into 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. No other intravenous diluents may be used to prepare the TYSABRI diluted solution.
- Gently invert the TYSABRI diluted solution to mix completely. Do not shake. Inspect the solution visually for particulate material prior to administration.
- The final dosage diluted solution has a concentration of 2.6 mg/mL.
- Following dilution, infuse TYSABRI solution immediately, or refrigerate the diluted solution at 2°C to 8°C, and use within 8 hours. If stored at 2°C to 8°C, allow the diluted solution to warm to room temperature prior to infusion. DO NOT FREEZE.
- Infuse TYSABRI 300 mg in 100 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, over approximately one hour (infusion rate approximately 5 mg per minute). Do not administer TYSABRI as an intravenous push or bolus injection. After the infusion is complete, flush with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.
- Observe patients during all infusions. Promptly discontinue the infusion upon the first observation of any signs or symptoms consistent with a hypersensitivity-type reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ].
- Post-infusion, for the first 12 infusions, observe patients for one hour after the infusion is complete. For patients who have received 12 infusions without evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction, observe patients post-infusion for the 13th and subsequent infusions according to clinical judgment.
- Use of filtration devices during administration has not been evaluated. Other medications should not be injected into infusion set side ports or mixed with TYSABRI.
Injection: 300 mg /15 mL (20 mg/mL) colorless and clear to slightly opalescent solution in a single-dose vial for dilution prior to infusion.
- TYSABRI is contraindicated in patients who have or have had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- TYSABRI is contraindicated in patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction to TYSABRI. Observed reactions range from urticaria to anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ].
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV) that typically only occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, and that usually leads to death or severe disability, has occurred in patients who have received TYSABRI.
Three factors that are known to increase the risk of PML in TYSABRI-treated patients have been identified:
- The presence of anti-JCV antibodies. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody positive have a higher risk for developing PML.
- Longer treatment duration, especially beyond 2 years.
- Prior treatment with an immunosuppressant (e.g., mitoxantrone, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil).
These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI.
Notes: The risk estimates are based on postmarketing data in the United States from approximately 100,000 TYSABRI exposed patients.
The anti-JCV antibody status was determined using an anti-JCV antibody test (ELISA) that has been analytically and clinically validated and is configured with detection and inhibition steps to confirm the presence of JCV-specific antibodies with an analytical false negative rate of 3%.
|Anti-JCV Antibody Negative||TYSABRI Exposure||Anti-JCV Antibody Positive|
|No Prior Immunosuppressant Use||Prior Immunosuppressant Use|
Retrospective analyses of postmarketing data from various sources, including observational studies and spontaneous reports obtained worldwide, suggest that the risk of developing PML may be associated with relative levels of serum anti-JCV antibody compared to a calibrator as measured by ELISA (often described as an anti-JCV antibody index value).
Ordinarily, patients receiving chronic immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy or who have systemic medical conditions resulting in significantly compromised immune system function should not be treated with TYSABRI. Infection by the JC virus is required for the development of PML. Anti-JCV antibody testing should not be used to diagnose PML. Anti-JCV antibody negative status indicates that antibodies to the JC virus have not been detected. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody negative have a lower risk of PML than those who are positive. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody negative are still at risk for the development of PML due to the potential for a new JCV infection or a false negative test result. The reported rate of seroconversion in patients with MS (changing from anti-JCV antibody negative to positive and remaining positive in subsequent testing) is 3 to 8 percent annually. In addition, some patients’ serostatus may change intermittently. Therefore, patients with a negative anti-JCV antibody test result should be retested periodically. For purposes of risk assessment, a patient with a positive anti-JCV antibody test at any time is considered anti-JCV antibody positive regardless of the results of any prior or subsequent anti-JCV antibody testing. When assessed, anti-JCV antibody status should be determined using an analytically and clinically validated immunoassay. After plasma exchange (PLEX), wait at least two weeks to test for anti-JCV antibodies to avoid false negative test results caused by the removal of serum antibodies. After infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), wait at least 6 months (5 half-lives) for the IVIg to clear in order to avoid false positive anti-JCV antibody test results.
Healthcare professionals should monitor patients on TYSABRI for any new sign or symptom suggestive of PML. Symptoms associated with PML are diverse, progress over days to weeks, and include progressive weakness on one side of the body or clumsiness of limbs, disturbance of vision, and changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion and personality changes. The progression of deficits usually leads to death or severe disability over weeks or months. Withhold TYSABRI dosing immediately and perform an appropriate diagnostic evaluation at the first sign or symptom suggestive of PML.
MRI findings may be apparent before clinical signs or symptoms. Cases of PML, diagnosed based on MRI findings and the detection of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms specific to PML, have been reported. Many of these patients subsequently became symptomatic with PML. Therefore, monitoring with MRI for signs that may be consistent with PML may be useful, and any suspicious findings should lead to further investigation to allow for an early diagnosis of PML, if present. Consider monitoring patients at high risk for PML more frequently. Lower PML-related mortality and morbidity have been reported following TYSABRI discontinuation in patients with PML who were initially asymptomatic compared to patients with PML who had characteristic clinical signs and symptoms at diagnosis. It is not known whether these differences are due to early detection and discontinuation of TYSABRI or due to differences in disease in these patients.
There are no known interventions that can reliably prevent PML or that can adequately treat PML if it occurs. PML has been reported following discontinuation of TYSABRI in patients who did not have findings suggestive of PML at the time of discontinuation. Patients should continue to be monitored for any new signs or symptoms that may be suggestive of PML for at least six months following discontinuation of TYSABRI.
Because of the risk of PML, TYSABRI is available only under a restricted distribution program, the TOUCH® Prescribing Program.
In multiple sclerosis patients, an MRI scan should be obtained prior to initiating therapy with TYSABRI. This MRI may be helpful in differentiating subsequent multiple sclerosis symptoms from PML.
In Crohn’s disease patients, a baseline brain MRI may also be helpful to distinguish pre-existent lesions from newly developed lesions, but brain lesions at baseline that could cause diagnostic difficulty while on TYSABRI therapy are uncommon.
For diagnosis of PML, an evaluation including a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA are recommended. If the initial evaluations for PML are negative but clinical suspicion for PML remains, continue to withhold TYSABRI dosing, and repeat the evaluations.
There are no known interventions that can adequately treat PML if it occurs. Three sessions of PLEX over 5 to 8 days were shown to accelerate TYSABRI clearance in a study of 12 patients with MS who did not have PML, although in the majority of patients, alpha-4 integrin receptor binding remained high. Adverse events which may occur during PLEX include clearance of other medications and volume shifts, which have the potential to lead to hypotension or pulmonary edema. Although PLEX has not been prospectively studied in TYSABRI-treated patients with PML, it has been used in such patients in the postmarketing setting to remove TYSABRI more quickly from the circulation. There is no evidence that PLEX has any benefit in the treatment of opportunistic infections such as PML.
JC virus infection of granule cell neurons in the cerebellum (i.e., JC virus granule cell neuronopathy [JCV GCN]) has been reported in patients treated with TYSABRI. JCV GCN can occur with or without concomitant PML. JCV GCN can cause cerebellar dysfunction (e.g., ataxia, incoordination, apraxia, visual disorders), and neuroimaging can show cerebellar atrophy. For diagnosis of JCV GCN, an evaluation that includes a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA, is recommended. JCV GCN should be managed similarly to PML.
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has been reported in the majority of TYSABRI treated patients who developed PML and subsequently discontinued TYSABRI. In almost all cases, IRIS occurred after PLEX was used to eliminate circulating TYSABRI. It presents as a clinical decline in the patient’s condition after TYSABRI removal (and in some cases after apparent clinical improvement) that may be rapid, can lead to serious neurological complications or death, and is often associated with characteristic changes in the MRI. TYSABRI has not been associated with IRIS in patients discontinuing treatment with TYSABRI for reasons unrelated to PML. In TYSABRI treated patients with PML, IRIS has been reported within days to several weeks after PLEX. Monitoring for development of IRIS and appropriate treatment of the associated inflammation should be undertaken.
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