Uceris (Page 4 of 7)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity

Carcinogenicity studies with budesonide were conducted in rats and mice. In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, budesonide caused a statistically significant increase in the incidence of gliomas in male rats at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.12 times the recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area). In addition, there were increased incidences of primary hepatocellular tumors in male rats at 25 mcg/kg (approximately 0.06 times the recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area) and above. No tumorigenicity was seen in female rats at oral doses up to 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.12 times the recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area).

In an additional 2-year study in male Sprague-Dawley rats, budesonide caused no gliomas at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.12 times the recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area). However, it caused a statistically significant increase in the incidence of hepatocellular tumors at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.12 times the recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area). The concurrent reference glucocorticosteroids (prednisolone and triamcinolone acetonide) showed similar findings. In a 91-week study in mice, budesonide caused no treatment-related carcinogenicity at oral doses up to 200 mcg/kg (approximately 0.24 times the recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area).

Mutagenesis

Budesonide showed no evidence of mutagenic potential in the Ames test, the mouse lymphoma cell forward gene mutation (TK+/-) test, the human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test, the Drosophila melanogaster sex-linked recessive lethality test, the rat hepatocyte UDS test or the mouse micronucleus test.

Impairment of Fertility

In rats, budesonide had no effect on fertility at subcutaneous doses up to 80 mcg/kg (approximately 0.20 times recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area). However, it caused a decrease in prenatal viability and viability in pups at birth and during lactation, along with a decrease in maternal body-weight gain, at subcutaneous doses of 20 mcg/kg (approximately 0.05 times recommended intrarectal dose of 4 mg/day in humans, based on the body surface area) and above. No such effects were noted at 5 mcg/kg.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The safety and efficacy of UCERIS rectal foam were evaluated in 2 replicate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trials (Studies 1 and 2).

Participants in the trials were adult patients with active mild-to-moderate distal ulcerative colitis with disease extending at least 5 cm but no further than 40 cm from the anal verge (confirmed by endoscopy). To be eligible, patients had to have a Modified Mayo Disease Activity Index (MMDAI) score between 5 and 10, inclusive, a rectal bleeding subscore of 2 or 3, and an endoscopy subscore of 2 or 3. The MMDAI score ranges from 0 to 12 and has 4 subscales that are each scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe): stool frequency, rectal bleeding, findings on endoscopy, and physician global assessment. An endoscopy subscore of 2 is defined by marked erythema, lack of vascular pattern, friability, and erosions; an endoscopy subscore of 3 is defined by spontaneous bleeding and ulceration.

Oral and rectal corticosteroids, and rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) products were prohibited during the course of the trials, but were allowed as rescue therapy. Oral 5-ASA products were allowed at doses ≤ 4.8 grams/day.

In total, 546 subjects were randomized in these trials: 267 subjects to UCERIS rectal foam and 279 subjects to placebo. In each trial (Study 1 and Study 2), patients received UCERIS rectal foam 2 mg or placebo twice daily for 2 weeks followed by once daily for 4 weeks.

The median age was 41 years and 42 years, 5% and 8% were ≥ 65 years of age, and 43% and 45% were male, in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. In each of these trials, 90% were Caucasian, 7‑8% were African American, and 3% were Asian or Other.

The majority of patients had a baseline diagnosis of proctosigmoiditis (69% and 74%) in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. The remaining patients had a baseline diagnosis of proctitis. Concomitant oral 5-ASA use at baseline was 59% and 51% in Studies 1 and 2, respectively.

Baseline MMDAI total score was 7.8 and 7.9 in the UCERIS rectal foam group and placebo group, respectively, of Study 1; and 7.9 and 8.0 in the UCERIS rectal foam group and placebo group, respectively, of Study 2. The mean stool frequency subscore at baseline was 1.8 and 1.9 in the UCERIS rectal foam group and placebo group, respectively, of Study 1; and 1.7 and 1.8 in the UCERIS rectal foam group and placebo group, respectively, of Study 2.

In each trial (Study 1 and Study 2), the primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects who were in remission after 6 weeks of treatment. Remission was defined as a decrease or no change in the stool frequency subscore from baseline, a rectal bleeding subscore of 0, and an endoscopy score of 0 or 1. (An endoscopy subscore of zero is defined by normal or inactive disease; an endoscopy subscore of 1 is defined by erythema and decreased vascular pattern.)

In each trial (Study 1 and Study 2), a higher proportion of patients in the UCERIS rectal foam group than in the placebo group were in remission at Week 6, and had a rectal bleeding subscore of 0 at Week 6 (Table 4).

Table 4: Efficacy Results: Studies 1 and 2
*
p-values obtained from the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test.
Remission was defined as an endoscopy subscore of 0 or 1, a rectal bleeding subscore of 0, and a decrease or no change in stool frequency subscore from baseline.

Efficacy Endpoint

Study 1

UCERIS Rectal Foam N = 133

Placebo

N=132

p-value *

Treatment Difference

(95% CI)

Remission at Week 6

38.3%

25.8%

0.032

12.6% (1.5%, 23.7%)

Rectal Bleeding subscore = 0 at Week 6

46.6%

28.0%

0.002

18.6% (7.2%, 30%)

Study 2

UCERIS Rectal Foam N = 134

Placebo

N=147

p-value *

Treatment Difference

(95% CI)

Remission at Week 6

44.0%

22.4%

< 0.001

21.6% (10.8%, 32.4%)

Rectal Bleeding subscore = 0 at Week 6

50.0%

28.6%

< 0.001

21.4% (10.3%, 32.6%)

CI: Confidence Interval

In Study 1, the percentage of patients with endoscopy subscore of 0 or 1 at Week 6 was 55.6% in the UCERIS rectal foam group versus 43.2% in the placebo group. In Study 2, the percentage of patients with endoscopy subscore of 0 or 1 at Week 6 was 56.0% in the UCERIS rectal foam group versus 36.7% in the placebo group (an endoscopy subscore of 0 is defined by normal or inactive disease; an endoscopy subscore of 1 is defined by erythema and decreased vascular pattern).

In patients that met the primary endpoint of remission in Study 1, the mean (SD) decrease in stool frequency subscore was 1.2 (0.9) in the UCERIS rectal foam group and 1.2 (0.8) in the placebo group. In patients that met the primary endpoint of remission in Study 2, the mean (SD) decrease in stool frequency subscore was 1.3 (0.8) in the UCERIS rectal foam group and 1.1 (0.9) in the placebo group.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2020. All Rights Reserved.