No drug-related teratogenic effects were observed in the progeny of rats treated orally with tramadol and acetaminophen. The tramadol/acetaminophen combination product was shown to be embryotoxic and fetotoxic in rats at a maternally toxic dose, 50/434 mg/kg tramadol/acetaminophen (300/2604 mg/m2 or 1.6 times the maximum daily human tramadol/acetaminophen dosage of 185/1591 mg/m2), but was not teratogenic at this dose level. Embryo and fetal toxicity consisted of decreased fetal weights and increased supernumerary ribs.
Tramadol alone was evaluated in peri- and post-natal studies in rats. Progeny of dams receiving oral (gavage) dose levels of 50 mg/kg (300 mg/m2 or 1.6 times the maximum daily human tramadol dosage) or greater had decreased weights, and pup survival was decreased early in lactation at 80 mg/kg (480 mg/m2 or 2.6 times the maximum daily human tramadol dosage).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. ULTRACET® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Neonatal seizures, neonatal withdrawal syndrome, fetal death and stillbirth have been reported with tramadol hydrochloride during post-marketing.
ULTRACET® should not be used in pregnant women prior to or during labor unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Safe use in pregnancy has not been established. Chronic use during pregnancy may lead to physical dependence and post-partum withdrawal symptoms in the newborn (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE). Tramadol has been shown to cross the placenta. The mean ratio of serum tramadol in the umbilical veins compared to maternal veins was 0.83 for 40 women given tramadol during labor.
The effect of ULTRACET® , if any, on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child is unknown.
ULTRACET® is not recommended for obstetrical preoperative medication or for post-delivery analgesia in nursing mothers because its safety in infants and newborns has not been studied.
Following a single IV 100 mg dose of tramadol, the cumulative excretion in breast milk within 16 hours post-dose was 100 µg of tramadol (0.1% of the maternal dose) and 27 µg of M1.
Table 2 reports the incidence rate of treatment-emergent adverse events over five days of ULTRACET® use in clinical trials (subjects took an average of at least 6 tablets per day).
|Body System |
|ULTRACET® (N=142) |
|Gastrointestinal System Disorders|
|Central & Peripheral Nervous System|
|Skin and Appendages|
|Reproductive Disorders, Male *|
Incidence at least 1%, causal relationship at least possible or greater: the following lists adverse reactions that occurred with an incidence of at least 1% in single-dose or repeated-dose clinical trials of ULTRACET®.
Body as a Whole – Asthenia, fatigue, hot flushes
Central and Peripheral Nervous System – Dizziness, headache, tremor
Gastrointestinal System – Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting
Psychiatric Disorders – Anorexia, anxiety, confusion, euphoria, insomnia, nervousness, somnolence
Skin and Appendages – Pruritus, rash, increased sweating
Selected Adverse events occurring at less than 1%: the following lists clinically relevant adverse reactions that occurred with an incidence of less than 1% in ULTRACET® clinical trials.
Body as a Whole – Chest pain, rigors, syncope, withdrawal syndrome
Cardiovascular Disorders – Hypertension, aggravated hypertension, hypotension
Central and Peripheral Nervous System – Ataxia, convulsions, hypertonia, migraine, aggravated migraine, involuntary muscle contractions, paresthesias, stupor, vertigo
Gastrointestinal System – Dysphagia, melena, tongue edema
Hearing and Vestibular Disorders – Tinnitus
Heart Rate and Rhythm Disorders – Arrhythmia, palpitation, tachycardia
Liver and Biliary System – Hepatic function abnormal
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders – Weight decrease
Psychiatric Disorders – Amnesia, depersonalization, depression, drug abuse, emotional lability, hallucination, impotence, paroniria, abnormal thinking
Red Blood Cell Disorders – Anemia
Respiratory System – Dyspnea
Urinary System – Albuminuria, micturition disorder, oliguria, urinary retention
Vision Disorders – Abnormal vision
Other clinically significant adverse experiences previously reported with tramadol hydrochloride
Other events which have been reported with the use of tramadol products and for which a causal association has not been determined include: vasodilation, orthostatic hypotension, myocardial ischemia, pulmonary edema, allergic reactions (including anaphylaxis and urticaria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TENS), cognitive dysfunction, difficulty concentrating, depression, suicidal tendency, hepatitis, liver failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Reported laboratory abnormalities included elevated creatinine and liver function tests. Serotonin syndrome (whose symptoms may include mental status change, hyperreflexia, fever, shivering, tremor, agitation, diaphoresis, seizures, and coma) has been reported with tramadol when used concomitantly with other serotonergic agents such as SSRIs and MAOIs.
Other clinically significant adverse experiences previously reported with acetaminophen
Allergic reactions (primarily skin rash) or reports of hypersensitivity secondary to acetaminophen are rare and generally controlled by discontinuation of the drug and, when necessary, symptomatic treatment.
Tramadol has mu-opioid agonist activity. ULTRACET® , a tramadol-containing product, can be abused and may be subject to criminal diversion.
Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. Drug addiction is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, continued use despite harm or risk of harm, and craving. Drug addiction is a treatable disease, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, but relapse is common.
“Drug-seeking” behavior is very common in addicts and drug abusers. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating physician(s). “Doctor shopping” to obtain additional prescriptions is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction.
Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Physicians should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of ULTRACET® can occur in the absence of true addiction and is characterized by misuse for non-medical purposes, often in combination with other psychoactive substances.
Concerns about abuse and addiction should not prevent the proper management of pain. However, all patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.
Proper assessment of the patient and periodic re-evaluation of therapy are appropriate measures that help to limit the potential abuse of this product.
ULTRACET® is intended for oral use only.
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