ULTRACET (Page 2 of 12)

2.2 Initial Dosage

The initial dose of ULTRACET is 2 tablets every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain relief up to a maximum of 8 tablets per day.

2.3 Dosage Modification in Patients with Renal Impairment

In patients with creatinine clearances of less than 30 mL/min, do not exceed 2 tablets every 12 hours.

2.4 Discontinuation of ULTRACET

ULTRACET is not approved for use greater than 5 days. In circumstances where physical dependence with ULTRACET is possible, use a gradual downward taper and do not stop use of ULTRACET abruptly. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.19] .

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

ULTRACET tablets each contain 37.5 mg of tramadol hydrochloride and 325 mg of acetaminophen. The tablets are light yellow, coated, capsule-shaped, and debossed with “O-M” on one side and “650″ on the other.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

ULTRACET is contraindicated for:

ULTRACET is also contraindicated in patients with:

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Addiction, Abuse and Misuse

ULTRACET contains tramadol, a Schedule IV controlled substance. As an opioid, ULTRACET exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)] .

Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed ULTRACET. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.

Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing ULTRACET, and monitor all patients receiving ULTRACET for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as ULTRACET, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of ULTRACET along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse.

Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing ULTRACET. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug [see Patient Counseling Information (17)] . Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.

5.2 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status [see Overdosage (10)] . Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.

While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of ULTRACET, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24–72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of ULTRACET.

To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of ULTRACET are essential [see Dosage and Administration (2)] . Overestimating the ULTRACET dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.

Accidental ingestion of even one dose of ULTRACET, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of tramadol.

5.3 Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-threatening Respiratory Depression in Children

Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol. Tramadol and codeine are subject to variability in metabolism based upon CYP2D6 genotype (described below), which can lead to increased exposure to an active metabolite. Based upon postmarketing reports with tramadol or with codeine, children younger than 12 years of age may be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol. Furthermore, children with obstructive sleep apnea who are treated with opioids for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain may be particularly sensitive to their respiratory depressant effect. Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death:

  • ULTRACET is contraindicated for all children younger than 12 years of age [see Contraindications (4)] . ULTRACET is contraindicated for all children younger than 12 years of age [see Contraindications (4)] .
  • ULTRACET is contraindicated for post-operative management in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications (4)] . ULTRACET is contraindicated for post-operative management in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications (4)] .
  • Avoid the use of ULTRACET in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Risk factors include conditions associated with hypoventilation such as postoperative status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, and concomitant use of other medications that cause respiratory depression.Avoid the use of ULTRACET in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Risk factors include conditions associated with hypoventilation such as postoperative status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, and concomitant use of other medications that cause respiratory depression.
  • As with adults, when prescribing opioids for adolescents, healthcare providers should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and inform patients and caregivers about these risks and the signs of opioid overdose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Overdosage (10)] . As with adults, when prescribing opioids for adolescents, healthcare providers should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and inform patients and caregivers about these risks and the signs of opioid overdose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Overdosage (10)] .

Nursing Mothers

Tramadol is subject to the same polymorphic metabolism as codeine, with ultra-rapid metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates being potentially exposed to life-threatening levels of O -desmethyltramadol (M1). At least one death was reported in a nursing infant who was exposed to high levels of morphine in breast milk because the mother was an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine. A baby nursing from an ultra-rapid metabolizer mother taking ULTRACET could potentially be exposed to high levels of M1, and experience life-threatening respiratory depression. For this reason, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with ULTRACET [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)] .

CYP2D6 Genetic Variability: Ultra-rapid metabolizer

Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers because of a specific CYP2D6 genotype (gene duplications denoted as *1/*1×N or *1/*2×N). The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 1 to 10% for Whites (European, North American), 3 to 4% for Blacks (African Americans), 1 to 2% for East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), and may be greater than 10% in certain racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Oceanian, Northern African, Middle Eastern, Ashkenazi Jews, Puerto Rican). These individuals convert tramadol into its active metabolite, O -desmethyltramadol (M1), more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum M1 levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may have life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression or experience signs of overdose (such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing) [see Overdosage (10)] . Therefore, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers should not use ULTRACET.

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