As with all therapeutic proteins there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other inebilizumab products may be misleading.
In Study 1, treatment-emergent antibodies (those that appeared or significantly increased from baseline after administration of UPLIZNA), were detected in 5.6% patients receiving UPLIZNA. Although these data do not demonstrate an impact of anti-inebilizumab-cdon antibody development on the efficacy or safety of UPLIZNA in these patients, the available data are too limited to make definitive conclusions.
Concomitant usage of UPLIZNA with immunosuppressant drugs, including systemic corticosteroids, may increase the risk of infection. Consider the risk of additive immune system effects when co-administering immunosuppressive therapies with UPLIZNA.
UPLIZNA is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody and immunoglobulins are known to cross the placental barrier. There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of UPLIZNA in pregnant women. However, transient peripheral B-cell depletion and lymphocytopenia have been reported in infants born to mothers exposed to other B-cell depleting antibodies during pregnancy. B-cell levels in infants following maternal exposure to UPLIZNA have not been studied in clinical trials. The potential duration of B-cell depletion in such infants, and the impact of B-cell depletion on vaccine safety and effectiveness, is unknown [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Intravenous administration of inebilizumab-cdon (0, 3, or 30 mg/kg/week) to human CD19 transgenic (huCD19 Tg) male and female mice prior to and during mating and continuing in females through gestation day 15 resulted in no adverse effects on embryofetal development; however, there was a marked reduction in B cells in fetal blood and liver at both doses tested. These results demonstrate that inebilizumab-cdon crosses the placenta and depletes B cells in the fetus.
Intravenous administration of inebilizumab-cdon (0, 3, or 30 mg/kg) to huCD19 Tg mice every three days throughout organogenesis and lactation resulted in depletion of B cells and persistent reductions in immune function (even following repletion of B cells and lasting into adulthood) in offspring at both doses tested. At the end of the lactation period, plasma inebilizumab-cdon levels in offspring were only slightly lower those in maternal plasma. A no-effect level for immunotoxicity in the offspring was not identified.
There are no data on the presence of ineblizumab-cdon in human milk, the effects on a breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Human IgG is excreted in human milk, and the potential for absorption of UPLIZNA to lead to B-cell depletion in the breastfed infant is unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for UPLIZNA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from UPLIZNA or from the underlying maternal condition.
Women of childbearing potential should use contraception while receiving UPLIZNA and for 6 months after the last infusion of UPLIZNA [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of UPLIZNA did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.
Inebilizumab-cdon is a CD19-directed humanized afucosylated IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell suspension culture. The molecular weight is approximately 149 kDa.
UPLIZNA (inebilizumab-cdon) injection is a sterile, preservative-free, clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to slightly yellow solution, free from visible particles, for intravenous use.
Each single-dose vial contains 100 mg of inebilizumab in 10 mL of solution. Each mL contains 10 mg of inebilizumab-cdon, L-histidine (1.4 mg), L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.3 mg), polysorbate 80 (0.1 mg), sodium chloride (4.1 mg), α,α-trehalose dihydrate (40.1 mg), and Water for Injection, USP and a pH of 6.
The precise mechanism by which inebilizumab-cdon exerts its therapeutic effects in NMOSD is unknown but is presumed to involve binding to CD19, a cell surface antigen presents on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Following cell surface binding to B lymphocytes, inebilizumab-cdon results in antibody-dependent cellular cytolysis.
Pharmacodynamics of UPLIZNA were assessed with an assay for CD20+ B cells, since UPLIZNA can interfere with the CD19+ B cell assay. Treatment with UPLIZNA reduces CD20+ B cell counts in blood by 8 days after infusion. In Study 1 [see Clinical Studies ( 14)] , CD20+ B-cell counts were reduced below the lower limit of normal by 4 weeks in 100% of patients treated with UPLIZNA and remained below the lower limit of normal in 94% of patients for 28 weeks after initiation of treatment.
The pharmacokinetics of inebilizumab-cdon in NMOSD patients following intravenous administration of UPLIZNA was biphasic with a mean terminal half-life of 18 days. The mean maximum concentration was 108 μg/mL (300 mg, second dose on Day 15), and the cumulative AUC of the 26-week treatment period in which NMOSD patients received two intravenous administrations 2 week apart was 2980 µg•d/mL.
Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, the estimated typical central and peripheral volume of distribution of inebilizumab-cdon was 2.95L and 2.57L, respectively.
Inebilizumab-cdon is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that is degraded by proteolytic enzymes widely distributed in the body.
The results of population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the estimated inebilizumab-cdon systemic clearance of the first-order elimination pathway was 0.19 L/day. At low exposure levels, inebilizumab-cdon was likely subject to the receptor (CD19)-mediated clearance, which decreased with time presumably because of the depletion of B-cells by UPLIZNA treatment.
Gender, Race , Geriatric Use
A population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of gender, race, and age on inebilizumab-cdon clearance.
Renal / H epatic Impairment
No formal clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of renal impairment or hepatic impairment on inebilizumab-cdon pharmacokinetic parameters.
Drug Interaction Studies
Cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters are not involved in the clearance of inebilizumab-cdon; therefore, the potential risk of interactions between UPLIZNA and concomitant medications that are substrates, inducers, or inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters is low.
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