UPTRAVI (Page 3 of 6)

8.2 Lactation

It is not known if UPTRAVI is present in human milk. Selexipag or its metabolites were present in the milk of rats. Because many drugs are present in the human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, discontinue nursing or discontinue UPTRAVI.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the 1,368 subjects in clinical studies of UPTRAVI tablets, 248 subjects were 65 years of age and older, while 19 were 75 and older. No overall differences were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity cannot be ruled out.

8.6 Patients with Hepatic Impairment

No adjustment to the dosing regimen is needed in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A).

A once-daily regimen is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) due to the increased exposure to selexipag and its active metabolite. There is no experience with UPTRAVI in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C). Avoid use of UPTRAVI in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Patients with Renal Impairment

No adjustment to the dosing regimen is needed in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate >15 mL/min/1.73 m2.

There is no clinical experience with UPTRAVI in patients undergoing dialysis or in patients with glomerular filtration rates <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Isolated cases of overdose with UPTRAVI tablets up to 3200 mcg were reported. Mild, transient nausea was the only reported consequence. In the event of overdose, supportive measures must be taken as required. Dialysis is unlikely to be effective because selexipag and its active metabolite are highly protein-bound.

11 DESCRIPTION

UPTRAVI contains selexipag, a prostacyclin receptor agonist. The chemical name of selexipag is 2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N -(methylsulfonyl) acetamide. It has a molecular formula of C26 H32 N4 O4 S and a molecular weight of 496.62. Selexipag has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Selexipag is a pale yellow crystalline powder that is practically insoluble in water. In the solid state selexipag is very stable, is not hygroscopic, and is not light sensitive.

UPTRAVI® (selexipag) tablets: depending on the dose strength, each round film-coated tablet for oral administration contains 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, or 1600 mcg of selexipag. The tablets include the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, D-mannitol, hydroxypropyl cellulose, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The tablets are film coated with a coating material containing carnauba wax, hypromellose, propylene glycol, titanium dioxide, along with mixtures of iron oxide black, iron oxide red or iron oxide yellow.

UPTRAVI® (selexipag) for injection: contains 1800 mcg of selexipag per vial. UPTRAVI for injection includes the following inactive ingredients: glycine (180 mg), phosphoric acid (3.53 mg), polysorbate 20 (10.8 mg) and sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment). UPTRAVI for injection is provided in 10 mL Type I clear glass vials closed by a stopper and tear-off aluminum seal.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Selexipag is a prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist that is structurally distinct from prostacyclin. Selexipag is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase 1 to yield its active metabolite, which is approximately 37-fold as potent as selexipag. Selexipag and the active metabolite are selective for the IP receptor versus other prostanoid receptors (EP1–4 , DP, FP, and TP).

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Cardiac Electrophysiology

At the maximum tolerated dose of 1600 mcg UPTRAVI tablets twice daily, UPTRAVI does not prolong the QT interval to any clinically relevant extent.

Platelet Aggregation

Both selexipag and its active metabolite caused concentration-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation in vitro with an IC50 of 5.5 µM and 0.21 µM, respectively. However, at clinically relevant concentrations, there was no effect on platelet aggregation test parameters as seen following multiple-dose administrations of UPTRAVI tablets in healthy subjects from 400 to 1800 mcg twice daily.

Pulmonary Hemodynamics

A Phase 2 clinical study assessed hemodynamic variables after 17 weeks of oral treatment in patients with PAH WHO Functional Class II–III and concomitantly receiving endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) and/or phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Patients titrating UPTRAVI tablets to an individually tolerated dose (200 mcg twice daily increments up to 800 mcg twice daily) (N=33) achieved a statistically-significant mean reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance of 30.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] −44.7%, −12.2%) and an increase in cardiac index (median treatment effect) of 0.41 L/min/m2 (95% CI 0.10, 0.71) compared to placebo (N=10).

Drug Interaction

In a study in healthy subjects, UPTRAVI tablets (400 mcg twice a day) did not influence the pharmacodynamic effect of warfarin on the international normalized ratio.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of selexipag and its active metabolite have been studied primarily in healthy subjects. The pharmacokinetics of selexipag and the active metabolite, after both single- and multiple-dose oral administration, were dose-proportional up to a single dose of 800 mcg and multiple doses of up to 1800 mcg twice daily. The pharmacokinetics of selexipag and the active metabolite, after multiple-dose intravenous administration, were dose-proportional in the tested dose range from 450 to 1800 mcg twice a day.

In healthy subjects, inter-subject variability in exposure (area under the curve over a dosing interval, AUC) at steady-state following oral administration was 43% and 39% for selexipag and the active metabolite, respectively. Intra-subject variability in exposure was 24% and 19% for selexipag and the active metabolite, respectively.

Exposures to selexipag and the active metabolite at steady-state in PAH patients and healthy subjects were similar. The pharmacokinetics of selexipag and the active metabolite in PAH patients were not influenced by the severity of the disease and did not change with time.

The corresponding UPTRAVI tablets and UPTRAVI for injection doses (Table 1) provide similar exposure to the active metabolite in PAH patients at steady-state, whereas the exposure to selexipag is approximately twice as high after intravenous administration compared to oral administration.

Both in healthy subjects and PAH patients, after oral administration, exposure at steady-state to the active metabolite is approximately 3- to 4-fold that of selexipag.

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of orally administered selexipag is approximately 49%. Upon oral administration, maximum observed plasma concentrations of selexipag and its active metabolite are reached within about 1–3 hours and 3–4 hours, respectively.

In the presence of food, the absorption of selexipag was prolonged resulting in a delayed time to peak concentration (Tmax ) and ~30% lower peak plasma concentration (Cmax ). The exposure to selexipag and the active metabolite (AUC) did not significantly change in the presence of food.

Distribution

The volume of distribution of selexipag at steady-state is 11.7 L.

Selexipag and its active metabolite are highly bound to plasma proteins (approximately 99% in total and to the same extent to albumin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein).

Metabolism

Selexipag is hydrolyzed to its active metabolite, (free carboxylic acid) in the liver and intestine by carboxylesterases. Oxidative metabolism, catalyzed mainly by CYP2C8 and to a smaller extent by CYP3A4, leads to the formation of hydroxylated and dealkylated products. UGT1A3 and UGT2B7 are involved in the glucuronidation of the active metabolite. Except for the active metabolite, none of the circulating metabolites in human plasma exceeds 3% of the total drug-related material.

Elimination

Elimination of selexipag is predominately via metabolism with a mean terminal half-life of 0.8–2.5 hours. The terminal half-life of the active metabolite is 6.2–13.5 hours. Selexipag does not accumulate following twice daily repeat administration. There is minimal accumulation of the active metabolite upon twice daily repeat administration suggesting that the effective half-life is in the range of 3–4 hours. The total body clearance of selexipag is 17.9 L/hour.

Excretion

In a study in healthy subjects with radiolabeled selexipag, approximately 93% of radioactive drug material was eliminated in feces and only 12% in urine. Neither selexipag nor its active metabolite were found in urine.

Specific Populations

No clinically relevant effects of sex, race, age or body weight on the pharmacokinetics of selexipag and its active metabolite have been observed in healthy subjects or PAH patients.

Age

The pharmacokinetic variables (Cmax and AUC) were similar in adult and elderly subjects up to 75 years of age. There was no effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of selexipag and the active metabolite in PAH patients.

Hepatic Impairment

In subjects with mild (Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment, exposure to selexipag was 2- and 4-fold that seen in healthy subjects. Exposure to the active metabolite of selexipag remained almost unchanged in subjects with mild hepatic impairment and was doubled in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Based on pharmacokinetic modeling of data from a study in subjects with hepatic impairment, the exposure to the active metabolite at steady-state in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) after a once daily regimen is expected to be similar to that in healthy subjects receiving a twice daily regimen. The exposure to selexipag at steady-state in these patients during a once daily regimen is predicted to be approximately 2-fold that seen in healthy subjects receiving a twice-daily regimen.

Renal Impairment

A 40–70% increase in exposure (maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve) to selexipag and its active metabolite was observed in subjects with severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

Drug Interaction Studies

Drug interaction studies have been performed in adult subjects using UPTRAVI tablets.

In Vitro Studies

Selexipag is hydrolyzed to its active metabolite by carboxylesterases. Selexipag and its active metabolite both undergo oxidative metabolism mainly by CYP2C8 and to a smaller extent by CYP3A4. The glucuronidation of the active metabolite is catalyzed by UGT1A3 and UGT2B7. Selexipag and its active metabolite are substrates of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Selexipag is a substrate of P-gp, and the active metabolite is a substrate of the transporter of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP).

Selexipag and its active metabolite do not inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 enzymes and transport proteins at clinically relevant concentrations.

The results of in vivo drug interaction studies are presented in Figure 1 and 2.

Figure 1 Effect of Other Drugs on Selexipag and its Active Metabolite

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

* ERA and PDE-5 inhibitor data from GRIPHON.

Figure 2 Effect of UPTRAVI on Other Drugs

Figure 2
(click image for full-size original)

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.