Seizures and other adverse Central Nervous System (CNS) experiences have been reported during treatment with meropenem, which is a component of VABOMERE. These experiences have occurred most commonly in patients with CNS disorders (e.g., brain lesions or history of seizures) or with bacterial meningitis and/or compromised renal function [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1) and Drug Interactions ( 7.1)] .
Close adherence to the recommended dosage regimens is urged, especially in patients with known factors that predispose to convulsive activity. Continue anti-convulsant therapy in patients with known seizure disorders. If focal tremors, myoclonus, or seizures occur, evaluate neurologically, place on anti-convulsant therapy if not already instituted, and reexamine the dosage of VABOMERE to determine whether it should be decreased or discontinued.
Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including VABOMERE, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin‑producing isolates of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drug use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial drug treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
The concomitant use of VABOMERE and valproic acid or divalproex sodium is generally not recommended. Case reports in the literature have shown that co-administration of carbapenems, including meropenem, to patients receiving valproic acid or divalproex sodium results in a reduction in valproic acid concentrations. The valproic acid concentrations may drop below the therapeutic range as a result of this interaction, therefore increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures. Increasing the dose of valproic acid or divalproex sodium may not be sufficient to overcome this interaction. Consider administration of antibacterial drugs other than carbapenems to treat infections in patients whose seizures are well controlled on valproic acid or divalproex sodium. If administration of VABOMERE is necessary, consider supplemental anticonvulsant therapy [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1)] .
In patients with renal impairment, thrombocytopenia has been observed in patients treated with meropenem, but no clinical bleeding has been reported [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2), Adverse Reactions ( 6.1), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5) and ( 8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].
Alert patients receiving VABOMERE on an outpatient basis regarding adverse reactions such as seizures, delirium, headaches and/or paresthesias that could interfere with mental alertness and/or cause motor impairment. Until it is reasonably well established that VABOMERE is well tolerated, advise patients not to operate machinery or motorized vehicles [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1)].
Prescribing VABOMERE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of drug-resistant bacteria [see Indications and Usage ( 1.2)] .
As with other antibacterial drugs, prolonged use of VABOMERE may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Repeated evaluation of the patient is essential. If superinfection does occur during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in the Warnings and Precautions section:
- Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)]
- Seizure Potential [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]
- Clostridium difficile -associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)]
- Risk of Breakthrough Seizures Due to Drug Interaction with Valproic Acid [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]
- Thrombocytopenia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)]
- Potential for Neuromotor Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)]
- Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7)]
- Overgrowth of Nonsusceptible Organisms [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
VABOMERE was evaluated in a Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trial in cUTI, including pyelonephritis, which included 272 patients treated with VABOMERE and 273 patients treated with the comparator piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 grams (piperacillin 4 g/tazobactam 0.5 g) every 8 hours. After a minimum of 15 doses of IV therapy, patients could be switched to oral levofloxacin (500 mg daily every 24 hours) to complete the treatment course. Mean duration of IV therapy was 8 days in both treatment groups. Mean duration of IV and oral therapy was 10 days; patients with baseline bacteremia could receive up to 14 days of treatment.
The mean age of patients treated with VABOMERE was 53 years (range 18 to 92 years), and 32% of patients were 65 years of age or older. Patients were predominantly female (66.5%) and White (93.4%). Most patients were enrolled in Europe (89.7%).
Serious Adverse Reactions and Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation
Treatment was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 2.9% (8/272) of patients receiving VABOMERE and in 5.1% (14/273) of patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam. Most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of VABOMERE included hypersensitivity, 1.1% (3/272) and infusion-related reactions, 0.7% (2/272). Death occurred in 2 (0.7%) patients who received VABOMERE and in 2 (0.7%) patients who received piperacillin/tazobactam.
Common Adverse Reactions
The most frequently reported adverse reactions (3% or greater) in patients receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 cUTI trial were headache, phlebitis/infusion site reactions, and diarrhea. Table 3 provides adverse reactions occurring in 1% or greater of patients receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 cUTI trial.
|Adverse Reactions|| |
VABOMERE (N=272) %
Piperacillin/Tazobactama (N=273) %
|Phlebitis/Infusion site reactions b||4.4||0.7|
|Alanine aminotransferase increased||1.8||0.4|
|Aspartate aminotransferase increased||1.5||0.7|
a Piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 grams (piperacillin 4 g/tazobactam 0.5 g) IV infused over 30 minutes every 8 hours.
b Infusion site reactions include infusion/injection site phlebitis, infusion site thrombosis, and infusion site erythema.
c Hypersensitivity includes hypersensitivity, drug hypersensitivity, anaphylactic reaction, rash urticaria, and bronchospasm
Adverse Reactions Occurring in Less Than 1% of Patients Receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 cUTI trial:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: leukopenia
General disorders and administration site conditions: chest discomfort
Infections and infestations: pharyngitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral candidiasis
Investigations: creatinine phosphokinase increase
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: decreased appetite, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia
Nervous system disorders: dizziness, tremor, paresthesia, lethargy
Psychiatric disorders: hallucination, insomnia
Renal and urinary disorders: azotemia, renal impairment
Vascular disorders: deep vein thrombosis, hypotension, vascular pain
Other Adverse Reactions Associated with Meropenem
Additionally, adverse reactions reported with meropenem alone that were not reported in VABOMERE-treated patients in the Phase 3 clinical trial are listed below:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: thrombocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia
Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain
Hepatobiliary disorders: jaundice
Nervous system disorders: convulsions
Investigations: blood alkaline phosphatase increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, blood bilirubin increased, blood creatinine increased, blood urea increased, blood thromboplastin decreased, prothrombin time decreased, Direct and Indirect Coombs test positive
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens Johnson syndrome, Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, erythema multiforme
Immune system disorders: angioedema
General disorders and administration site conditions: pain
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