Valsartan (Page 3 of 7)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in postmarketing use of valsartan tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema has been reported. Some of these patients previously experienced angioedema with other drugs, including ACE inhibitors. Valsartan tablets should not be re-administered to patients who have had angioedema.
Digestive: Elevated liver enzymes and very rare reports of hepatitis
Musculoskeletal: Rhabdomyolysis
Renal: Impaired renal function, renal failure
Dermatologic: Alopecia, bullous dermatitis
Blood and Lymphatic: Thrombocytopenia
Vascular: Vasculitis

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Agents Increasing Serum Potassium

Concomitant use of valsartan with other agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride), potassium supplements, salt substitutes containing potassium or other drugs that may increase potassium levels (e.g., heparin) may lead to increases in serum potassium and in heart failure patients to increases in serum creatinine. If co-medication is considered necessary, monitoring of serum potassium is advisable.

7.2 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including valsartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving valsartan and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including valsartan, may be attenuated by NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors.

7.3 Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on valsartan and other agents that affect the RAS.
Do not coadminister aliskiren with valsartan in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with valsartan in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min).

7.4 Lithium

Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary
Valsartan tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Published reports include cases of anhydramnios and oligohydramnios in pregnant women treated with valsartan (see Clinical Considerations).

When pregnancy is detected, consider alternative drug treatment and discontinue valsartan tablets as soon as possible.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Oligohydramnios in pregnant women who use drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.

In patients taking valsartan tablets during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. If oligohydramnios is observed, consider alternative drug treatment. Closely observe neonates with histories of in utero exposure to valsartan tablets for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. In neonates with a history of in utero exposure to valsartan tablets, if oliguria or hypotension occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and replacing renal function.

Data
Animal Data
No teratogenic effects were observed when valsartan was administered to pregnant mice and rats at oral doses of up to 600 mg/kg/day (9 and 18 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis) and to pregnant rabbits at oral doses of up to 10 mg/kg/day.

In rats, oral valsartan administered at maternally toxic doses (600 mg/kg/day) during organogenesis or late gestation and lactation, resulted in decreased fetal and pup weight, pup survival and delayed developmental milestones. In rabbits administered maternally toxic doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, fetotoxicity was observed.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary
There is no information regarding the presence of valsartan tablets in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Valsartan tablets is present in rat milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from exposure to valsartan, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Valsartan tablets.
Data
Valsartan was detected in the milk of lactating rats 15 minutes after oral administration of a 3 mg/kg dose.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The antihypertensive effects of valsartan have been evaluated in 5 clinical studies in pediatric patients from 1-16 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The pharmacokinetics of valsartan have been evaluated in pediatric patients 1 to 16 years of age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The adverse experience profile of valsartan was similar to that described for adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
In children and adolescents with hypertension where underlying renal abnormalities may be more common, renal function and serum potassium should be closely monitored as clinically indicated.
Use of valsartan is not recommended in children less than 1 year of age. [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. It is not known whether post-natal use of valsartan, before maturation of renal function is complete, has a long¬term deleterious effect on the kidney.
No data are available in pediatric patients either undergoing dialysis or with a glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2.

8.5 Geriatric Use

In the controlled clinical trials of valsartan, 1,214 (36.2%) hypertensive patients treated with valsartan were ≥65 years and 265 (7.9%) were ≥75 years. No overall difference in the efficacy or safety of valsartan was observed in this patient population, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Exposure [measured by area under the curve (AUC)] to valsartan is higher by 70% in the elderly than in the young, however no dosage adjustment is necessary [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Of the 2,511 patients with heart failure randomized to valsartan in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial, 45% (1,141) were 65 years of age or older. In the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion trial (VALIANT), 53% (2,596) of the 4,909 patients treated with valsartan and 51% (2,515) of the 4,885 patients treated with valsartan + captopril were 65 years of age or older. There were no notable differences in efficacy or safety between older and younger patients in either trial.

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