VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE

VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE- vancomycin hydrochloride capsule
Orient Pharma Co.,Ltd

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are indicated for the treatment of C. difficile -associated diarrhea. Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules is also used for the treatment of enterocolitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains). Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for the above infections; therefore, Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules must be given orally for these infections.

Orally administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules is not effective for other types of infections.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules and other antibacterial drugs, Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Adults

Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are used in treating C. difficile -associated diarrhea and staphylococcal enterocolitis.

  • C. difficile- associated diarrhea: The recommended dose is 125 mg administered orally 4 times daily for 10 days.
  • Staphylococcal enterocolitis: Total daily dosage is 500 mg to 2 g administered orally in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days.

2.2 Pediatric Patients

The usual daily dosage is 40 mg/kg in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dosage should not exceed 2 g.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules USP 125 mg* CAPSULES have a blue cap and yellow body imprinted with “OP64” on both cap and body in white ink.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules USP 250 mg* CAPSULES have a blue cap and dark-yellow body imprinted with “OP65” on both cap and body in white ink.

*Equivalent to vancomycin.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to vancomycin.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Oral Use Only

This preparation for the treatment of colitis is for oral use only and is not systemically absorbed. Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules must be given orally for treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Orally administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are not effective for other types of infections.

Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis and C. difficile-associated diarrhea. If parenteral vancomycin therapy is desired, use an intravenous preparation of vancomycin and consult the package insert accompanying that preparation .

5.2 Potential for Systemic Absorption

Clinically significant serum concentrations have been reported in some patients who have taken multiple oral doses of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules for active C. difficile -associated diarrhea. Some patients with inflammatory disorders of the intestinal mucosa also may have significant systemic absorption of vancomycin. These patients may be at risk for the development of adverse reactions associated with higher doses of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules; therefore, monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin may be appropriate in some instances, e.g., in patients with renal insufficiency and/or colitis or in those receiving concomitant therapy with an aminoglycoside antibiotic.

5.3 Nephrotoxicity

Nephrotoxicity (e.g., reports of renal failure, renal impairment, blood creatinine increased) has occurred following oral Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules therapy in randomized controlled clinical studies, and can occur either during or after completion of therapy.

The risk of nephrotoxicity is increased in patients >65 years of age [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Clinical Trial Experience ( 6.1 ) and USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS, Geriatric Use ( 8.5 )] .

In patients >65 years of age, including those with normal renal function prior to treatment, renal function should be monitored during and following treatment with Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules to detect potential vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity.

5.4 Ototoxicity

Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive intravenous doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Serial tests of auditory function may be helpful in order to minimize the risk of ototoxicity [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Postmarketing Experience ( 6.2 )].

5.5 Superinfection

Use of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

5.6 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.

5.7 Risk of Allergic Reactions due to Tartrazine

The 125 mg strength capsules contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data described below reflect exposure to vancomycin hydrochloride in 260 adult subjects in two Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of diarrhea associated with C. difficile . In both trials, subjects received vancomycin hydrochloride capsules 125 mg orally four times daily. The mean duration of treatment was 9.4 days. The median age of patients was 67, ranging between 19 and 96 years of age. Patients were predominantly Caucasian (93%) and 52% were male.

Adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 5% of vancomycin hydrochloride-treated subjects are shown in Table 1. The most common adverse reactions associated with vancomycin hydrochloride (≥ 10%) were nausea, abdominal pain, and hypokalemia.

Table 1: Common (≥ 5%) Adverse Reactions for Vancomycin Hydrochloride Reported in Clinical Trials for Treatment of Diarrhea Associated with C. difficile
System / Organ Class Adverse Reaction Vancomycin Hydrochloride % ( N = 260 )
Gastrointestinal disorders Nausea 17
Abdominal pain 15
Vomiting 9
Diarrhea 9
Flatulence 8
General disorders and administration Pyrexia 9
site conditions Edema peripheral 6
Fatigue 5
Infections and infestations Urinary tract infection 8
Metabolism and nutrition disorders Hypokalemia 13
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Back pain 6
Nervous system disorders Headache 7

Nephrotoxicity (e.g., reports of renal failure, renal impairment, blood creatinine increased) occurred in 5% of subjects treated with vancomycin hydrochloride. Nephrotoxicity following vancomycin hydrochloride typically first occurred within one week after completion of treatment (median day of onset was Day 16). Nephrotoxicity following vancomycin hydrochloride occurred in 6% of subjects >65 years of age and 3% of subjects ≤65 years of age [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Nephrotoxicity ( 5.3 )].

The incidences of hypokalemia, urinary tract infection, peripheral edema, insomnia, constipation, anemia, depression, vomiting, and hypotension were higher among subjects >65 years of age than in subjects ≤65 years of age [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS, Geriatric Use ( 8.5 )].

Discontinuation of study drug due to adverse events occurred in 7% of subjects treated with vancomycin hydrochloride. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of vancomycin hydrochloride were C. difficile colitis (<1%), nausea (<1%), and vomiting (<1%).

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