Vancomycin Hydrochloride (Page 2 of 4)
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of vancomycin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Ototoxicity: Cases of hearing loss associated with intravenously administered vancomycin have been reported. Most of these patients had kidney dysfunction or a preexisting hearing loss or were receiving concomitant treatment with an ototoxic drug [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Vertigo, dizziness, and tinnitus have been reported.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Severe dermatologic reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] , rashes (including exfoliative dermatitis).
Hematopoietic: Reversible neutropenia, usually starting 1 week or more after onset of intravenous therapy with vancomycin or after a total dose of more than 25 g, has been reported for several dozen patients. Neutropenia appears to be promptly reversible when vancomycin is discontinued. Thrombocytopenia has been reported.
Miscellaneous: Patients have been reported to have had anaphylaxis, drug fever, chills, nausea, eosinophilia, and cases of vasculitis in association with the administration of vancomycin.
A condition has been reported that is similar to the IV–induced syndrome with symptoms consistent with anaphylactoid reactions, including hypotension, wheezing, dyspnea, urticaria, pruritus, flushing of the upper body (“vancomycin infusion reaction”), pain and muscle spasm of the chest and back. These reactions usually resolve within 20 minutes but may persist for several hours.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
No drug interaction studies have been conducted.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Systemic absorption of vancomycin is low following oral administration of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules; however, absorption may vary depending on various factors [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There are no available data on vancomycin use in pregnant women to assess a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Available published data on intravenous vancomycin use in pregnancy during the second and third trimesters have not shown an association with adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data).
Vancomycin did not show adverse developmental effects when administered intravenously to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses less than or equal to the recommended maximum human dose (see Data).
There are no available data on first trimester use of vancomycin in pregnant women to assess a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage.
A published study evaluated hearing loss and nephrotoxicity in infants of 10 pregnant intravenous drug users treated with intravenous vancomycin for suspected or documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus in the second or third trimester. The comparison groups were 10 uninfected non-intravenous drug-dependent patients who received no treatment and 10 uninfected untreated intravenous drug-dependent patients. No infant in the vancomycin exposed group had abnormal sensorineural hearing at 3 months of age or nephrotoxicity.
A published prospective study assessed outcomes in 55 pregnant women with a positive Group B streptococcus culture and a high-risk penicillin allergy with resistance to clindamycin or unknown sensitivity who were administered intravenous vancomycin at the time of delivery. Vancomycin dosing ranged from the standard dose of 1 g intravenously every 12 hours to a dose of 20 mg/kg intravenously every 8 hours (maximum individual dose 2 g). No major adverse reactions were recorded either in the mothers or their newborns. None of the newborns had sensorineural hearing loss. Neonatal renal function was not examined, but all of the newborns were discharged in good condition.
Vancomycin did not cause fetal malformation when administered intravenously during organogenesis to pregnant rats (gestation days 6 to 15) and rabbits (gestation days 6 to 18) at the equivalent recommended maximum human dose of 200 mg/kg/day to rats or 120 mg/kg/day to rabbits. No effects on fetal weight or development were seen in rats at the highest dose tested or in rabbits given 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 1 and 0.8 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area). Maternal toxicity was observed in rats (at doses 120 mg/kg and above) and rabbits (at 80 mg/kg and above).
There are no data on the presence of vancomycin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effect on milk production following oral administration. Systemic absorption of vancomycin is low following oral administration of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] ; therefore, it is unlikely to result in clinically relevant exposure in breastfeeding infants. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are indicated in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age for the treatment of C. difficile -associated diarrhea and enterocolitis caused by S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains) [see Indications and Usage (1) and Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
In clinical trials, 54% of vancomycin-treated subjects were >65 years of age. Of these, 40% were between the ages of >65 and 75, and 60% were >75 years of age.
Clinical studies with vancomycin in diarrhea associated with Clostridioides difficile have demonstrated that geriatric subjects are at increased risk of developing nephrotoxicity following treatment with oral vancomycin, which may occur during or after completion of therapy. In patients >65 years of age, including those with normal renal function prior to treatment, renal function should be monitored during and following treatment with vancomycin to detect potential vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Patients >65 years of age may take longer to respond to therapy compared to patients ≤65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of appropriate duration of vancomycin treatment in patients >65 years of age and not discontinue or switch to alternative treatment prematurely.
Supportive care is advised, with maintenance of glomerular filtration. Vancomycin is poorly removed by dialysis. Hemofiltration and hemoperfusion with polysulfone resin have been reported to result in increased vancomycin clearance.
To obtain current information about the treatment of overdose, contact a certified Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug overdoses, interaction among drugs, and unusual drug kinetics.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules USP for oral administration contain chromatographically purified vancomycin hydrochloride, a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic derived from Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Nocardia orientalis), which has the chemical formula C66 H75 Cl2 N9 O24 •HCl. The molecular weight of vancomycin hydrochloride is 1485.73; 500 mg of the base is equivalent to 0.34 mmol.
Each capsule contains 125 mg vancomycin (equivalent to 128 mg vancomycin hydrochloride) or 250 mg vancomycin (equivalent to 256 mg vancomycin hydrochloride). The capsules also contain FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, iron oxide, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, and other inactive ingredients.
Vancomycin hydrochloride has the structural formula:
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