VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE- vancomycin hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection and other antibacterial drugs, vancomycin hydrochloride for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP is a lyophilized powder, for preparing intravenous (IV) infusions, in vials each containing the equivalent of 500 mg, 750 mg or 1 g vancomycin base. 500 mg of the base are equivalent to 0.34 mmol, 750 mg of the base are equivalent to 0.51 mmol, and 1 g of the base are equivalent to 0.67 mmol. When reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection to a concentration of 50 mg/mL, the pH of the solution is between 2.5 and 4.5. This product is oxygen sensitive. Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP should be administered intravenously in diluted solution (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), AFTER RECONSTITUTION FURTHER DILUTION IS REQUIRED BEFORE USE.
Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic derived from Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Nocardia orientalis). The chemical name for vancomycin hydrochloride is 3S- [3R *,6S *(S*),7S *,22S *,23R *,26R *,36S *,38aS *]]-3-(2-Amino-2-oxoethyl)-44-[[2-O-(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-10,19-dichloro-2,3,4,5,6,7,23,24,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro-7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-[[4-methyl-2-(methylamino)-1-oxopentyl]amino]-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo-22H-8,11:18,21-dietheno-23,36- (iminomethano)-13,16:31,35-dimetheno-1H ,16H -[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5- m ][10,2,16]-benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, monohydrochloride. The molecular formula is C66 H75 Cl2 N9 O24 ∙ HCl and the molecular weight is 1,485.74. Vancomycin hydrochloride has the following structural formula:
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Indications and Usage
Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (β-lactam-resistant) staphylococci. It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin-susceptible organisms that are resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is indicated for initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly.
Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. Its effectiveness has been documented in other infections due to staphylococci, including septicemia, bone infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections. When staphylococcal infections are localized and purulent, antibiotics are used as adjuncts to appropriate surgical measures.
Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection has been reported to be effective alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside for endocarditis caused by S. viridans or S. bovis. For endocarditis caused by enterococci (e.g., E. faecalis), vancomycin has been reported to be effective only in combination with an aminoglycoside.
Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection has been reported to be effective for the treatment of diphtheroid endocarditis. Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection has been used successfully in combination with either rifampin, an aminoglycoside, or both in early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by S. epidermidis or diphtheroids.
Specimens for bacteriologic cultures should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to vancomycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection and other antibacterial drugs, vancomycin hydrochloride for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
The parenteral form of vancomycin hydrochloride may be administered orally for treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis produced by C. difficile and for staphylococcal enterocolitis. Parenteral administration of vancomycin hydrochloride alone is of unproven benefit for these indications. Vancomycin is not effective by the oral route for other types of infections.
Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.
Rapid bolus administration (e.g., over several minutes) may be associated with exaggerated hypotension, including shock and rarely cardiac arrest.
Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection should be administered in a diluted solution over a period of not less than 60 minutes to avoid rapid-infusion-related reactions. Stopping the infusion usually results in prompt cessation of these reactions.
Systemic vancomycin exposure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI). The risk of AKI increases as systemic exposure/serum levels increase. Monitor renal function in all patients, especially patients with underlying renal impairment, patients with co-morbidities that predispose to renal impairment, and patients receiving concomitant therapy with a drug known to be nephrotoxic.
Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride for injection. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Vancomycin should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency because the risk of toxicity is appreciably increased by high, prolonged blood concentrations.
Dosage of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection must be adjusted for patients with renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Severe Dermatologic Reactions
Severe dermatologic reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) have been reported in association with the use of vancomycin. Cutaneous signs or symptoms reported include skin rashes, mucosal lesions, and blisters.
Discontinue vancomycin hydrochloride for injection at the first appearance of signs and symptoms of TEN, SJS, DRESS, AGEP, or LABD.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including vancomycin hydrochloride for injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Hemorrhagic Occlusive Retinal Vasculitis (HORV)
Hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis, including permanent loss of vision, occurred in patients receiving intracameral or intravitreal administration of vancomycin during or after cataract surgery. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administered by the intracameral or the intravitreal route have not been established by adequate and well-controlled trials. Vancomycin is not indicated for the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis.
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