Venlafaxine Hydrochloride (Page 10 of 15)

10.2 Management of Overdosage

Consult a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). In case of an overdose, provide supportive care, including close medical supervision and monitoring. Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drug. Consider the possibility of multiple drug overdose. Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. Provide supportive and symptomatic measures.

11 DESCRIPTION

Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsule USP is an extended-release capsule for once-a-day oral administration that contains venlafaxine hydrochloride USP, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI).
Venlafaxine is designated (R/S)-1-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl] cyclohexanol hydrochloride or (±)-1-[α-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-p-­methoxybenzyl] cyclohexanol hydrochloride and has the molecular formula of C 17 H 27 NO 2 HCl. Its molecular weight is 313.86. The structural formula is shown as follows:

Chemical Structure

Venlafaxine hydrochloride USP is a white or almost white crystalline powder, with a solubility of 572 mg/mL in water (adjusted to ionic strength of 0.2 M with sodium chloride). Its octanol: water (0.2 M sodium chloride) partition coefficient is 0.43.
Drug release is controlled by diffusion through the coating membrane on the spheroids and is not pH-dependent. Capsules contain venlafaxine hydrochloride USP equivalent to 37.5 mg, 75 mg, or 150 mg venlafaxine. Inactive ingredients consist of ethyl cellulose, hypromellose, sugar spheres, and talc. The empty hard gelatin capsule shells contain iron oxide red, gelatin, titanium dioxide, and sodium lauryl sulphate. In addition, the 37.5 mg empty hard gelatin capsule shells contain iron oxide black. The capsules are printed with edible ink containing black iron oxide and shellac.
Meets the USP Dissolution Test — 4

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

The exact mechanism of the antidepressant action of venlafaxine in humans is unknown, but is thought to be related to the potentiation of serotonin and norepinephrine in the central nervous system, through inhibition of their reuptake. Non- clinical studies have demonstrated that venlafaxine and its active metabolite, ODV, are potent and selective inhibitors of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and weak inhibitors of dopamine reuptake.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Venlafaxine and ODV have no significant affinity for muscarinic-cholinergic, H 1 -histaminergic, or α 1 -adrenergic receptors in vitro. Pharmacologic activity at these receptors is hypothesized to be associated with the various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects seen with other psychotropic drugs. Venlafaxine and ODV do not possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

The effect of venlafaxine on the QT interval was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-and positive-controlled three-period crossover thorough QT study in 54 healthy adult subjects. No significant QT prolongation effect of venlafaxine 450 mg was detected.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Steady-state concentrations of venlafaxine and ODV in plasma are attained within 3 days of oral multiple-dose therapy. Venlafaxine and ODV exhibited linear kinetics over the dose range of 75 to 450 mg per day. Mean±SD steady-state plasma clearance of venlafaxine and ODV is 1.3±0.6 and 0.4±0.2 L/h/kg, respectively; apparent elimination half-life is 5±2 and 11±2 hours, respectively; and apparent (steady-state) volume of distribution is 7.5±3.7 and 5.7±1.8 L/kg, respectively. Venlafaxine and ODV are minimally bound at therapeutic concentrations to plasma proteins (27% and 30%, respectively).

Absorption and Distribution

Venlafaxine is well absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver. ODV is the major active metabolite. On the basis of mass balance studies, at least 92% of a single oral dose of venlafaxine is absorbed. The absolute bioavailability of venlafaxine is approximately 45%.
Administration of venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules (150 mg once daily) generally resulted in lower C max and later T max values than for venlafaxine hydrochloride (immediate release) administered twice daily (Table 16). When equal daily doses of venlafaxine were administered as either an immediate-release tablet or the extended-release capsule, the exposure to both venlafaxine and ODV was similar for the two treatments, and the fluctuation in plasma concentrations was slightly lower with the venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules. Therefore, venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules provide a slower rate of absorption, but the same extent of absorption compared with the immediate-release tablet.

Table 16: Comparison of C max and T max Values for Venlafaxine and ODV Following Oral Administration of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules and Venlafaxine Hydrochloride (Immediate Release)
Venlafaxine ODV
C max (ng/mL) T max (h) C max (ng/mL) T max (h)
Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (150 mg once daily) 150 5.5 260 9
Venlafaxine Hydrochloride (75 mg twice daily) 225 2 290 3

Food did not affect the bioavailability of venlafaxine or its active metabolite, ODV. Time of administration (AM versus PM) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine and ODV from the 75 mg venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules.
Venlafaxine is not highly bound to plasma proteins; therefore, administration of venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules to a patient taking another drug that is highly protein-bound should not cause increased free concentrations of the other drug.

Metabolism and Elimination

Following absorption, venlafaxine undergoes extensive presystemic metabolism in the liver, primarily to ODV, but also to N-desmethylvenlafaxine, N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine, and other minor metabolites. In vitro studies indicate that the formation of ODV is catalyzed by CYP2D6; this has been confirmed in a clinical study showing that patients with low CYP2D6 levels (poor metabolizers) had increased levels of venlafaxine and reduced levels of ODV compared to people with normal CYP2D6 levels (extensive metabolizers) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)] .
Approximately 87% of a venlafaxine dose is recovered in the urine within 48 hours as unchanged venlafaxine (5%), unconjugated ODV (29%), conjugated ODV (26%), or other minor inactive metabolites (27%). Renal elimination of venlafaxine and its metabolites is thus the primary route of excretion.

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