VEOZAH (Page 2 of 5)
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Effect of Other Drugs on VEOZAH
VEOZAH is a substrate of CYP1A2. Concomitant use of VEOZAH with drugs that are weak, moderate, or strong CYP1A2 inhibitors, increase the plasma Cmax and AUC of VEOZAH [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
VEOZAH is contraindicated in individuals using CYP1A2 inhibitors.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no data on VEOZAH use in pregnant women to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.
In embryo-fetal toxicity animal studies with fezolinetant, embryo-lethality occurred at high doses above the human therapeutic dose in rats and rabbits, but no teratogenicity was observed. In the pre- and post-natal development animal study, delayed parturition and embryo-lethality occurred at high doses above the human therapeutic dose in rats. Additionally, in the male offspring delayed male reproductive maturation was observed, characterized by incomplete preputial separation, which affected male fertility at doses above the human therapeutic dose in rats [see Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects or miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies are 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
In embryo-fetal development toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, embryo-lethality was noted at the highest doses (128- and 174-fold the human AUC24 at the human therapeutic dose for rats and rabbits, respectively). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for embryo-fetal development was 50 mg/kg/day in rats and 45 mg/kg/day in rabbits (62- and 16-fold the human AUC24 at the human therapeutic dose for rats and rabbits, respectively). Fezolinetant showed no effects on fertility and early embryonic development in rats [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
In the pre- and post-natal development study in rats, the NOAEL for maternal and fetal toxicity was 30 mg/kg/day (36-fold the human AUC24 at the human therapeutic dose) based on delayed parturition and embryo-lethality at 100 mg/kg/day. The NOAEL for F1 generation development was determined to be 100 mg/kg/day for females (204-fold the human AUC24 at the human therapeutic dose) and 10 mg/kg/day for males (11-fold the human AUC24 at the human therapeutic dose). The F1 male showed delayed male reproductive maturation, characterized as incomplete balanopreputial separation at time of mating, at doses of greater than or equal to 30 mg/kg/day (36-fold the human AUC24 at the human therapeutic dose), which affected male fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
There are no data on the presence of fezolinetant in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. It is not known if fezolinetant is present in human milk.
Following administration of radiolabeled fezolinetant to lactating rats, the radioactivity concentration in milk was higher than that in the plasma at all time points, indicating that fezolinetant-derived components transferred to the tissues in infant rats via breast milk.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The efficacy and safety of VEOZAH in individuals less than 18 years of age have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical trials utilizing VEOZAH to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger women in their response to VEOZAH.
8.6 Renal Impairment
VEOZAH is contraindicated in individuals with severe (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (eGFR less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose adjustment of VEOZAH is recommended for individuals with mild (eGFR 60 to less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) or moderate (eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment.
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
Child-Pugh Class A or B hepatic impairment increased the exposure of VEOZAH [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. VEOZAH has not been studied in individuals with Child-Pugh Class C hepatic impairment.
VEOZAH is contraindicated in individuals with cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of VEOZAH therapy with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.
VEOZAH (fezolinetant) is a small-molecule NK3 receptor antagonist.
The chemical name of fezolinetant is (4-Fluorophenyl)[(8R)-8-methyl-3-(3-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a ]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]methanone having a molecular formula of C16 H15 FN6 OS and a molecular weight of 358.39. The structural formula of fezolinetant is:
Fezolinetant is a white powder. It is very slightly soluble in water (0.29 mg/mL).
Each VEOZAH (fezolinetant) tablet for oral use contains 45 mg of fezolinetant and the following inactive ingredients: ferric oxide, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
VEOZAH is a neurokinin 3 (NK3) receptor antagonist that blocks neurokinin B (NKB) binding on the kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neuron to modulate neuronal activity in the thermoregulatory center. Fezolinetant has high affinity for the NK3 receptor (Ki value of 19.9 to 22.1 nmol/L), which is more than 450-fold higher than binding affinity to NK1 or NK2 receptors.
Treatment with fezolinetant did not show any clear trends in sex hormones measured (follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estrogen, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) in menopausal women. Transient decrease of luteinizing hormone (LH) levels was observed at peak concentrations of fezolinetant.
At a dose 20 times the maximum approved recommended dose, fezolinetant does not prolong the QT interval to any clinically relevant extent.
In healthy women, fezolinetant Cmax and AUC increased proportionally over a dosage range from 20 to 60 mg once daily (0.44 to 1.33 times the approved recommended dosage).
Steady-state plasma concentrations of fezolinetant were reached after two once daily doses, with minimal fezolinetant accumulation.
The median (range) time to reach fezolinetant Cmax is 1.5 (1 to 4) hours in healthy women.
Effect of Food
No clinically significant differences in fezolinetant pharmacokinetics were observed following administration with a high-calorie, high-fat meal containing approximately 1000 calories (500-600 calories from fat, 250 calories from carbohydrates, and 150 calories from protein).
The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vz /F) of fezolinetant is 189 L. The plasma protein binding of fezolinetant is 51%. The blood-to-plasma ratio is 0.9.
The effective half-life (t1/2 ) of fezolinetant is 9.6 hours in women with vasomotor symptoms. The apparent clearance at steady-state of fezolinetant is 10.8 L/h.
Fezolinetant is primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 and to a lesser extent by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. A major metabolite of fezolinetant, ES259564, was identified in plasma. ES259564 is approximately 20-fold less potent than the parent. The metabolite-to-parent ratio ranges from 0.7 to 1.8.
Following oral administration of fezolinetant, 76.9% of the dose was excreted in urine (1.1% unchanged) and 14.7% in feces (0.1% unchanged).
There were no substantive differences in the pharmacokinetics of VEOZAH based on race and body weight (93 to 278 pounds).
Women with Renal Impairment
Following single-dose administration of 30 mg fezolinetant, there was no effect on VEOZAH exposure (Cmax and AUC) in women with mild (eGFR 60 to less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) to severe (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment. The AUC of ES259564 (a major metabolite of fezolinetant) in women with moderate (eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and severe (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment increased by approximately 75% and 380%, respectively. VEOZAH has not been studied in individuals with end-stage renal disease (eGFR less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2).
Women with Hepatic Impairment
Following single-dose administration of 30 mg fezolinetant in women with mild Child-Pugh Class A cirrhosis, the mean Cmax increased by 23% and AUCinf increased by 56%, relative to women with normal hepatic function. In women with moderate Child-Pugh Class B cirrhosis, the mean Cmax of fezolinetant decreased by 15% and AUCinf increased by 96%. The Cmax of ES259564 decreased in both mild and moderate cirrhosis while AUCinf and AUClast increased less than 15%. VEOZAH has not been studied in individuals with severe Child-Pugh Class C cirrhosis.
Drug Interaction Studies
Clinical Studies and Model-Informed Approaches
Strong CYP1A2 Inhibitors: Fezolinetant Cmax increased by 80% and AUC increased by 840% following concomitant use with fluvoxamine (strong CYP1A2 inhibitor).
Moderate CYP1A2 Inhibitors: Fezolinetant Cmax increased by 40% and AUC increased by 360% following concomitant use with mexiletine (moderate CYP1A2 inhibitor) 400 mg every 8 hours.
Weak CYP1A2 Inhibitors: Fezolinetant Cmax increased by 30% and AUC increased by 100% following concomitant use with cimetidine (weak CYP1A2 inhibitor) 300 mg every 6 hours.
No clinically significant differences in fezolinetant exposure were observed in smokers (moderate CYP1A2 inducer).
In Vitro Studies
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes: Fezolinetant and ES259564 are not inhibitors of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. Fezolinetant and ES259564 are not inducers of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4.
Fezolinetant is not a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). ES259564 is a substrate of P-gp, but not an inhibitor of P-gp.
Both fezolinetant and ES259564 are not a substrate of BCRP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3. In addition, ES259564 is not a substrate of OAT1, OAT3, OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K.
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