VINCASAR PFS- vincristine sulfate injection, solution
Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.
PRESERVATIVE FREE SOLUTION
Caution-This preparation should be administered by individuals experienced in the administration of VINCASAR PFS. It is extremely important that the intravenous needle or catheter be properly positioned before any vincristine is injected. Leakage into surrounding tissue during intravenous administration of VINCASAR PFS may cause considerable irritation. If extravasation occurs, the injection should be discontinued immediately, and any remaining portion of the dose should then be introduced into another vein. Local injection of hyaluronidase and the application of moderate heat to the area of leakage help disperse the drug and are thought to minimize discomfort and the possibility of cellulitis.
FOR INTRAVENOUS USE ONLY – FATAL IF GIVEN BY OTHER ROUTES.
See OVERDOSAGE section for the treatment of patients given intrathecal VINCASAR PFS.
VINCASAR PFS (vincristine sulfate injection, USP) is vincaleukoblastine, 22-oxo-, sulfate (1:1) (salt). It is the salt of an alkaloid obtained from a common flowering herb, the periwinkle plant (Vinca rosea Linn). Originally known as leurocristine, it has also been referred to as LCR and VCR. The structural formula is as follows:
C46 H56 N4 O10 •H2 SO4 M.W. 923.04
Vincristine Sulfate, USP is a white to slightly yellow powder. It is soluble in methanol, freely soluble in water, but only slightly soluble in 95% ethanol. In 98% ethanol, vincristine sulfate, USP has an ultraviolet spectrum with maxima at 221 nm (∈+47,100).
VINCASAR PFS (vincristine sulfate injection, USP) is a sterile, preservative-free, single-dose only solution available for intravenous use in 2 mL (1 mg and 2 mg) vials. Each mL contains vincristine sulfate USP, 1 mg (1.08 µmol); mannitol, 100 mg; and water for injection, qs. Acetic acid and sodium acetate have been added for pH control. The pH of VINCASAR PFS ranges from 3.5 to 5.5. This product is a sterile solution for cancer/oncolytic use.
The mechanisms of action of vincristine sulfate remain under investigation. The mechanism of action of vincristine sulfate has been related to the inhibition of microtubule formation in mitotic spindle, resulting in an arrest of dividing cells at the metaphase stage.
Central nervous system leukemia has been reported in patients undergoing otherwise successful therapy with vincristine sulfate. This suggests that vincristine does not penetrate well into the cerebrospinal fluid.
Pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer have shown a triphasic serum decay pattern following rapid intravenous injection. The initial, middle, and terminal half-lives are 5 minutes, 2.3 hours, and 85 hours respectively; however, the range of the terminal half-life in humans is from 19 to 155 hours. The liver is the major excretory organ in humans and animals. The metabolism of vinca alkaloids has been shown to be mediated by hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in the CYP 3A subfamily. This metabolic pathway may be impaired in patients with hepatic dysfunction or who are taking concomitant potent inhibitors of these isoenzymes (see PRECAUTIONS). About 80% of an injected dose of vincristine sulfate appears in the feces and 10% to 20% can be found in the urine. Within 15 to 30 minutes after injection, over 90% of the drug is distributed from the blood into tissue, where it remains tightly, but not irreversibly, bound.
Current principles of cancer chemotherapy involve the simultaneous use of several agents. Generally, each agent used has a unique toxicity and mechanism of action so that therapeutic enhancement occurs without additive toxicity. It is rarely possible to achieve equally good results with single-agent methods of treatment. Thus, vincristine sulfate is often chosen as part of polychemotherapy because of lack of significant bone-marrow suppression (at recommended doses) and of unique clinical toxicity (neuropathy). See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section for possible increased toxicity when used in combination therapy.
VINCASAR PFS is indicated in acute leukemia.
VINCASAR PFS has also been shown to be useful in combination with other oncolytic agents in Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s malignant lymphomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and Wilms’ tumor.
This preparation is for intravenous use only. It should be administered by individuals experienced in the administration of vincristine sulfate injection. The intrathecal administration of VINCASAR PFS (vincristine sulfate injection) usually results in death.
To reduce the potential for fatal medication errors due to incorrect route of administration, VINCASAR PFS should be diluted in a flexible plastic container and prominently labeled as indicated for “FOR INTRAVENOUS USE ONLY – FATAL IF GIVEN BY OTHER ROUTES.”
See OVERDOSAGE section for the treatment of patients given intrathecal VINCASAR PFS.
Vincristine sulfate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. When pregnant mice and hamsters were given doses of vincristine sulfate that caused resorption of 23% to 85% of fetuses, fetal malformations were produced in those that survived. Five monkeys were given single doses of vincristine sulfate between days 27 and 34 of their pregnancies; 3 of the fetuses were normal at term, and 2 viable fetuses had grossly evident malformations at term. In several animal species, vincristine sulfate can induce teratogenesis as well as embryo death at doses that are nontoxic to the pregnant animal. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, she should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.
Acute uric acid nephropathy, which may occur after the administration of oncolytic agents, has also been reported with vincristine sulfate. In the presence of leukopenia or a complicating infection, administration of the next dose of VINCASAR PFS warrants careful consideration.
If central nervous system leukemia is diagnosed, additional agents may be required, because vincristine does not appear to cross the blood-brain barrier in adequate amounts.
Particular attention should be given to dosage and neurologic side effects if VINCASAR PFS is administered to patients with preexisting neuromuscular disease and when other drugs with neurotoxic potential are also being used.
Acute shortness of breath and severe bronchospasm have been reported following the administration of vinca alkaloids. These reactions have been encountered most frequently when the vinca alkaloid was used in combination with mitomycin-C and may require aggressive treatment, particularly when there is preexisting pulmonary dysfunction. The onset of these reactions may occur minutes to several hours after the vinca alkaloid is injected and may occur up to 2 weeks following the dose of mitomycin. Progressive dyspnea requiring chronic therapy may occur. VINCASAR PFS should not be readministered.
Care must be taken to avoid contamination of the eye with concentration of VINCASAR PFS used clinically. If accidental contamination occurs, severe irritation (or, if the drug was delivered under pressure, even corneal ulceration) may result. The eye should be washed immediately and thoroughly.
Because dose-limiting clinical toxicity is manifested as neurotoxicity, clinical evaluation (e.g., history, physical examination) is necessary to detect the need for dosage modification. Following administration of VINCASAR PFS, some individuals may have a fall in the white blood cell count or platelet count, particularly when previous therapy or the disease itself has reduced bone-marrow function. Therefore, a complete blood count should be done before administration of each dose. Acute elevation of serum uric acid may also occur during induction of remission in acute leukemia; thus, such levels should be determined frequently during the first 3 to 4 weeks of treatment or appropriate measures taken to prevent uric acid nephropathy. The laboratory performing these tests should be consulted for its range of normal values.
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