Voriconazole can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data on the use of voriconazole in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, oral voriconazole was associated with fetal malformations in rats and fetal toxicity in rabbits. Cleft palates and hydronephrosis/hydroureter were observed in rat pups exposed to voriconazole during organogenesis at and above 10 mg/kg (0.3 times the RMD of 200 mg every 12 hours based on body surface area comparisons). In rabbits, embryomortality, reduced fetal weight and increased incidence of skeletal variations, cervical ribs and extrasternal ossification sites were observed in pups when pregnant rabbits were orally dosed at 100 mg/kg (6 times the RMD based on body surface area comparisons) during organogenesis. Rats exposed to voriconazole from implantation to weaning experienced increased gestational length and dystocia, which were associated with increased perinatal pup mortality at the 10 mg/kg dose [see Data]. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, inform the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20% respectively.
Voriconazole was administered orally to pregnant rats during organogenesis (gestation days 6 to 17) at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day. Voriconazole was associated with increased incidences of the malformations hydroureter and hydronephrosis at 10 mg/kg/day or greater, approximately 0.3 times the recommended human dose (RMD) based on body surface area comparisons, and cleft palate at 60 mg/kg, approximately 2 times the RMD based on body surface area comparisons. Reduced ossification of sacral and caudal vertebrae, skull, pubic, and hyoid bone, supernumerary ribs, anomalies of the sternebrae, and dilatation of the ureter/renal pelvis were also observed at doses of 10 mg/kg or greater. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity at any dose.
Voriconazole was administered orally to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 7 to 19) at 10, 40, and 100 mg/kg/day. Voriconazole was associated with increased post-implantation loss and decreased fetal body weight, in association with maternal toxicity (decreased body weight gain and food consumption) at 100 mg/kg/day (6 times the RMD based on body surface area comparisons). Fetal skeletal variations (increases in the incidence of cervical rib and extra sternebral ossification sites) were observed at 100 mg/kg/day.
In a peri- and postnatal toxicity study in rats, voriconazole was administered orally to female rats from implantation through the end of lactation at 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day. Voriconazole prolonged the duration of gestation and labor and produced dystocia with related increases in maternal mortality and decreases in perinatal survival of F1 pups at 10 mg/kg/day, approximately 0.3 times the RMD.
No data are available regarding the presence of voriconazole in human milk, the effects of voriconazole on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for voriconazole and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from voriconazole or from the underlying maternal condition.
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with voriconazole. The coadministration of voriconazole with the oral contraceptive, Ortho-Novum® (35 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone), results in an interaction between these two drugs, but is unlikely to reduce the contraceptive effect. Monitoring for adverse reactions associated with oral contraceptives and voriconazole is recommended [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety and effectiveness of voriconazole have been established in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older based on evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adult and pediatric patients and additional pediatric pharmacokinetic and safety data. A total of 105 pediatric patients aged 2 to less than 12 [N=26] and aged 12 to less than 18 [N=79] from two, non-comparative Phase 3 pediatric studies and eight adult therapeutic trials provided safety information for voriconazole use in the pediatric population [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years has not been established. Therefore, voriconazole is not recommended for pediatric patients less than 2 years of age.
A higher frequency of liver enzyme elevations was observed in the pediatric patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
The frequency of phototoxicity reactions is higher in the pediatric population. Squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in patients who experience photosensitivity reactions. Stringent measures for photoprotection are warranted. Sun avoidance and dermatologic follow-up are recommended in pediatric patients experiencing photoaging injuries, such as lentigines or ephelides, even after treatment discontinuation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Voriconazole has not been studied in pediatric patients with hepatic or renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5, 2.6)]. Hepatic function and serum creatinine levels should be closely monitored in pediatric patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.10)].
In multiple dose therapeutic trials of voriconazole, 9.2% of patients were ≥65 years of age and 1.8% of patients were ≥75 years of age. In a study in healthy subjects, the systemic exposure (AUC) and peak plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were increased in elderly males compared to young males. Pharmacokinetic data obtained from 552 patients from 10 voriconazole therapeutic trials showed that voriconazole plasma concentrations in the elderly patients were approximately 80% to 90% higher than those in younger patients after either IV or oral administration. However, the overall safety profile of the elderly patients was similar to that of the young so no dosage adjustment is recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In clinical trials, there were three cases of accidental overdose. All occurred in pediatric patients who received up to five times the recommended intravenous dose of voriconazole. A single adverse reaction of photophobia of 10 minutes duration was reported.
There is no known antidote to voriconazole.
Voriconazole is hemodialyzed with clearance of 121 mL/min. The intravenous vehicle, SBECD, is hemodialyzed with clearance of 55 mL/min. In an overdose, hemodialysis may assist in the removal of voriconazole and SBECD from the body.
Voriconazole, an azole antifungal agent is available as a lyophilized powder for solution for intravenous infusion. The structural formula is:
Voriconazole USP is designated chemically as (2R,3S)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(5-fluoro-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-(1H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanol with a molecular formula of C16 H14 F3 N5 O and a molecular weight of 349.3.
Voriconazole USP drug substance is a white or almost white powder.
Voriconazole for injection is a white lyophilized powder containing nominally 200 mg voriconazole and 3,200 mg sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin sodium in a 30 mL Type I clear glass vial.
Voriconazole for injection is intended for administration by intravenous infusion. It is a single-dose, unpreserved product. Vials containing 200 mg lyophilized voriconazole are intended for reconstitution with Water for Injection to produce a solution containing 10 mg/mL voriconazole and 160 mg/mL of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin sodium. The resultant solution is further diluted prior to administration as an intravenous infusion [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
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