Warfarin Sodium (Page 9 of 11)

Maintenance

Most patients are satisfactorily maintained at a dose of 2 to 10 mg daily. Flexibility of dosage is provided by breaking scored tablets in half. The individual dose and interval should be gauged by the patient’s prothrombin response. Acquired or inherited warfarin resistance is rare, but should be suspected if large daily doses of warfarin sodium tablets are required to maintain a patient’s PT/INR within a normal therapeutic range. Lower maintenance doses are recommended for elderly and/or debilitated patients and patients with a potential to exhibit greater than expected PT/INR response to warfarin sodium tablets (see PRECAUTIONS).

Duration of Therapy

The duration of therapy in each patient should be individualized. In general, anticoagulant therapy should be continued until the danger of thrombosis and embolism has passed.14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22

Missed Dose

The anticoagulant effect of warfarin sodium tablets persists beyond 24 hours. If the patient forgets to take the prescribed dose of warfarin sodium tablets at the scheduled time, the dose should be taken as soon as possible on the same day. The patient should not take the missed dose by doubling the daily dose to make up for missed doses, but should refer back to his or her physician.

LABORATORY CONTROL

The PT reflects the depression of vitamin K dependent Factors VII, X and II. A system of standardizing the PT in oral anticoagulant control was introduced by the World Health Organization in 1983. It is based upon the determination of an International Normalized Ratio (INR) which provides a common basis for communication of PT results and interpretations of therapeutic ranges.24 The PT should be determined daily after the administration of the initial dose until PT/INR results stabilize in the therapeutic range. Intervals between subsequent PT/INR determinations should be based upon the physician’s judgment of the patient’s reliability and response to warfarin sodium tablets in order to maintain the individual within the therapeutic range. Acceptable intervals for PT/INR determinations are normally within the range of one to four weeks after a stable dosage has been determined. To ensure adequate control, it is recommended that additional PT tests be done when other warfarin products are interchanged with warfarin sodium tablets, USP, as well as whenever other medications are initiated, discontinued, or taken irregularly (see PRECAUTIONS ). Safety and efficacy of warfarin therapy can be improved by increasing the quality of laboratory control. Reports suggest that in usual care monitoring, patients are in therapeutic range only 33%-64% of the time. Time in therapeutic range is significantly greater (56%-93%) in patients managed by anticoagulation clinics, among self-testing and self-monitoring patients, and in patients managed with the help of computer programs.25 Self-testing patients had fewer bleeding events than patients in usual care.25

TREATMENT DURING DENTISTRY AND SURGERY

The management of patients who undergo dental and surgical procedures requires close liaison between attending physicians, surgeons and dentists.15, 19 PT/INR determination is recommended just prior to any dental or surgical procedure. In patients undergoing minimal invasive procedures who must be anticoagulated prior to, during, or immediately following these procedures, adjusting the dosage of warfarin sodium tablets to maintain the PT/INR at the low end of the therapeutic range may safely allow for continued anticoagulation. The operative site should be sufficiently limited and accessible to permit the effective use of local procedures for hemostasis. Under these conditions, dental and minor surgical procedures may be performed without undue risk of hemorrhage. Some dental or surgical procedures may necessitate the interruption of warfarin sodium tablets therapy. When discontinuing warfarin sodium tablets even for a short period of time, the benefits and risks should be strongly considered.

CONVERSION FROM HEPARIN THERAPY

Since the anticoagulant effect of warfarin sodium tablets is delayed, heparin is preferred initially for rapid anticoagulation. Conversion to warfarin sodium tablets may begin concomitantly with heparin therapy or may be delayed 3 to 6 days. To ensure continuous anticoagulation, it is advisable to continue full dose heparin therapy and that warfarin sodium tablets therapy be overlapped with heparin for 4 to 5 days, until warfarin sodium tablets have produced the desired therapeutic response as determined by PT/INR. When warfarin sodium tablets have produced the desired PT/INR or prothrombin activity, heparin may be discontinued.

Warfarin sodium tablets may increase the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test, even in the absence of heparin. A severe elevation (>50 seconds) in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with a PT/INR in the desired range has been identified as an indication of increased risk of postoperative hemorrhage.

During initial therapy with warfarin sodium tablets, the interference with heparin anticoagulation is of minimal clinical significance.

As heparin may affect the PT/INR, patients receiving both heparin and warfarin sodium tablets should have blood for PT/INR determination drawn at least:

  • 5 hours after the last IV bolus dose of heparin, or
  • 4 hours after cessation of a continuous IV infusion of heparin, or
  • 24 hours after the last subcutaneous heparin injection.

HOW SUPPLIED

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 1 mg are pink, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘1’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-672-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 2 mg are lavender, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘2’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-673-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

NDC 21695-673-60 in bottles of 60 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 2.5 mg are green, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘2½’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-674-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 3 mg are tan, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘3’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-675-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 4 mg are blue, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘4’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC: 21695-939-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 5 mg are peach, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘5’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-677-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 7.5 mg are yellow, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘7½’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-940-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Warfarin Sodium Tablets, 10 mg are white to off white, oval, flat, beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with the logo of ‘WAR’, ‘10’ and bisect on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

NDC 21695-801-30 in bottles of 30 tablets

Storage

Store at 20° — 25°C (68° — 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.

REFERENCES

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