WERA — norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol
Northstar Rx LLC
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptive use. This risk increases with age, particularly in women over 35 years of age, and with the number of cigarettes smoked. For this reason, combination oral contraceptives, including WERATM , should not be used by women who are over 35 years of age and smoke.
COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
The following product is a combined oral contraceptive containing the progestational compound norethindrone and the estrogenic compound ethinyl estradiol.
Each light peach tablet contains 0.5 mg of norethindrone and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol.
Inactive ingredients include: titanium dioxide, macrogol/PEG 3350 NF, talc, polyvinyl alcohol, iron oxide red, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and pregelatinized starch. Each white tablet contains only inert ingredients, as follows: Titanium dioxide, polydextrose, hypromellose, triacetin, macrogol/polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and pregelatinized corn starch.
The chemical name for norethindrone is 17-Hydroxy-19-nor-17 -pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, and for ethinyl estradiol is 19-Nor-17 -pregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3,17-diol. Their structural formulas are as follows:
Combined oral contraceptives act by suppression of gonadotropins. Although the primary mechanism of this action is inhibition of ovulation, other alterations include changes in the cervical mucus (which increase the difficulty of sperm entry into the uterus) and the endometrium (which reduce the likelihood of implantation).
Oral contraceptives are highly effective. Table 1 lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combined oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD, and the NORPLANT® System depends upon the reliability with which they are used. Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates.
Adapted from Hatcher et al, 1998, Ref. #1.
Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Treatment initiated within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse reduces the risk of pregnancy by at least 75%.9
Lactational Amenorrhea Method: LAM is highly effective, temporary method of contraception.1 0
Source: Trussell J, Contraceptive efficacy. In Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Stewart F, Cates W, Stewart GK, Kowal D, Guest F, Contraceptive Technology: Seventeenth Revised Edition. New York NY: Irvington Publishers, 1998.
1 Among typical couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason
2 Among couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time) and who use it perfectly (both consistently and correctly), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason
3 Among couples attempting to avoid pregnancy, the percentage who continue to use a method for one year
4 The percents becoming pregnant in columns (2) and (3) are based on data from populations where contraception is not used and from women who cease using contraception in order to become pregnant. Among such populations, about 89% become pregnant within one year. This estimate was lowered slightly (to 85%) to represent the percent who would become pregnant within one year among women now relying on reversible methods of contraception if they abandoned contraception altogether
5 Foams, creams, gels, vaginal suppositories, and vaginal film
6 Cervical mucus (ovulation) method supplemented by calendar in the pre-ovulatory and basal body temperature in the post-ovulatory phases
7 With spermicidal cream or jelly
8 Without spermicides
9 The treatment schedule is one dose within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, and a second dose 12 hours after the first dose. The Food and Drug Administration has declared the following brands of oral contraceptives to be safe and effective for emergency contraception: Ovral® (1 dose is 2 white pills), Alesse® (1 dose is 5 pink pills), Nordette® or Levlen® (1 dose is 2 light-orange pills), Lo/Ovral® (1 dose is 4 white pills), Triphasil® or Tri-Levlen® (1 dose is 4 yellow pills)
1 0 However, to maintain effective protection against pregnancy, another method of contraception must be used as soon as menstruation resumes, the frequency or duration of breastfeeds is reduced, bottle feeds are introduced, or the baby reaches six months of age.
|% of Women Experiencing an Unintended Pregnancy within the First Year of Use||% of Women Continuing Use at One Year3|
|Method||Typical Use1||Perfect Use2|
|Norplant® and Norplant-2®||0.05||0.05||88|
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