The recommended dose of XARELTO is 10 mg taken orally once daily with or without food. The initial dose should be taken 6 to 10 hours after surgery provided that hemostasis has been established [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
- For patients undergoing hip replacement surgery, treatment duration of 35 days is recommended.
- For patients undergoing knee replacement surgery, treatment duration of 12 days is recommended.
If anticoagulation must be discontinued to reduce the risk of bleeding with surgical or other procedures, XARELTO should be stopped at least 24 hours before the procedure to reduce the risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In deciding whether a procedure should be delayed until 24 hours after the last dose of XARELTO, the increased risk of bleeding should be weighed against the urgency of intervention. XARELTO should be restarted after the surgical or other procedures as soon as adequate hemostasis has been established, noting that the time to onset of therapeutic effect is short [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. If oral medication cannot be taken during or after surgical intervention, consider administering a parenteral anticoagulant.
If a dose of XARELTO is not taken at the scheduled time, administer the dose as soon as possible on the same day as follows:
- For patients receiving 15 mg twice daily: The patient should take XARELTO immediately to ensure intake of 30 mg XARELTO per day. In this particular instance, two 15 mg tablets may be taken at once. The patient should continue with the regular 15 mg twice daily intake as recommended on the following day.
- For patients receiving 20 mg, 15 mg or 10 mg once daily: The patient should take the missed XARELTO dose immediately.
For patients who are unable to swallow whole tablets, 10 mg, 15 mg or 20 mg XARELTO tablets may be crushed and mixed with applesauce immediately prior to use and administered orally. After the administration of a crushed XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablet, the dose should be immediately followed by food [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.3, 2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Administration via nasogastric (NG) tube or gastric feeding tube: After confirming gastric placement of the tube, 10 mg, 15 mg or 20 mg XARELTO tablets may be crushed and suspended in 50 mL of water and administered via an NG tube or gastric feeding tube. Since rivaroxaban absorption is dependent on the site of drug release, avoid administration of XARELTO distal to the stomach which can result in reduced absorption and thereby, reduced drug exposure. After the administration of a crushed XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg tablet, the dose should then be immediately followed by enteral feeding [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Crushed 10 mg, 15 mg or 20 mg XARELTO tablets are stable in water and in applesauce for up to 4 hours. An in vitro compatibility study indicated that there is no adsorption of rivaroxaban from a water suspension of a crushed XARELTO tablet to PVC or silicone nasogastric (NG) tubing.
- 10 mg tablets: Round, light red, biconvex and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a “10″ marked on one side and “Xa” on the other side
- 15 mg tablets: Round, red, biconvex, and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a “15″ marked on one side and “Xa” on the other side
- 20 mg tablets: Triangle-shaped, dark red, and film-coated with a triangle pointing down above a “20″ marked on one side and “Xa” on the other side
XARELTO is contraindicated in patients with:
- active pathological bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- severe hypersensitivity reaction to XARELTO (e.g., anaphylactic reactions) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]
Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from XARELTO to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.6) and Clinical Studies (14.1)].
XARELTO increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious or fatal bleeding. In deciding whether to prescribe XARELTO to patients at increased risk of bleeding, the risk of thrombotic events should be weighed against the risk of bleeding.
Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss and consider the need for blood replacement. Discontinue XARELTO in patients with active pathological hemorrhage. The terminal elimination half-life of rivaroxaban is 5 to 9 hours in healthy subjects aged 20 to 45 years.
Concomitant use of other drugs that impair hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin, P2Y12 platelet inhibitors, other antithrombotic agents, fibrinolytic therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Concomitant use of drugs that are combined P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole and ritonavir) increases rivaroxaban exposure and may increase bleeding risk [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Reversal of Anticoagulant Effect
A specific antidote for rivaroxaban is not available. Because of high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not expected to be dialyzable [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of rivaroxaban. Partial reversal of prothrombin time prolongation has been seen after administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) in healthy volunteers. The use of other procoagulant reversal agents like activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has not been evaluated.
When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal puncture is employed, patients treated with anticoagulant agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis [see Boxed Warning].
To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of rivaroxaban and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known.
An epidural catheter should not be removed earlier than 18 hours after the last administration of XARELTO. The next XARELTO dose is not to be administered earlier than 6 hours after the removal of the catheter. If traumatic puncture occurs, the administration of XARELTO is to be delayed for 24 hours.
Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, monitor frequently to detect any signs or symptoms of neurological impairment, such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness, tingling, or weakness in lower limbs), bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to immediately report if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae.
Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min since drug exposure is increased. Periodically assess renal function as clinically indicated (i.e., more frequently in situations in which renal function may decline) and adjust therapy accordingly. Discontinue XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery
Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min. Patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO should discontinue the treatment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
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