Xarelto (Page 5 of 13)

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients in the RECORD 1–3 clinical studies evaluating XARELTO, about 54% were 65 years and over, while about 15% were >75 years. In ROCKET AF, approximately 77% were 65 years and over and about 38% were >75 years. In the EINSTEIN DVT, PE and Extension clinical studies approximately 37% were 65 years and over and about 16% were >75 years. In EINSTEIN CHOICE, approximately 39% were 65 years and over and about 12% were >75 years. In the MAGELLAN study, approximately 67% were 65 years and over and about 37% were >75 years. In the COMPASS study, approximately 76% were 65 years and over and about 17% were >75 years. In clinical trials the efficacy of XARELTO in the elderly (65 years or older) was similar to that seen in patients younger than 65 years. Both thrombotic and bleeding event rates were higher in these older patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)].

8.6 Renal Impairment

In pharmacokinetic studies, compared to healthy subjects with normal creatinine clearance, rivaroxaban exposure increased by approximately 44 to 64% in subjects with renal impairment. Increases in pharmacodynamic effects were also observed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease not on Dialysis

In the ROCKET AF trial, patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min were administered XARELTO 15 mg once daily resulting in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban and clinical outcomes similar to those in patients with better renal function administered XARELTO 20 mg once daily. Patients with CrCl <30 mL/min were not studied, but administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis

Clinical efficacy and safety studies with XARELTO did not enroll patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of XARELTO 15 mg once daily will result in concentrations of rivaroxaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in the ROCKET AF study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3)]. It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar stroke reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in ROCKET AF.

Treatment of DVT and/or PE and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and/or PE

In the EINSTEIN trials, patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the studies, but administration of XARELTO is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min.

Prophylaxis of DVT Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

The combined analysis of the RECORD 1–3 clinical efficacy studies did not show an increase in bleeding risk for patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min and reported a possible increase in total venous thromboemboli in this population. In the RECORD 1–3 trials, patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the studies, but administration of XARELTO 10 mg once daily is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min. Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min.

Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Acutely Ill Medical Patients at Risk for Thromboembolic Complications Not at High Risk of Bleeding

Patients with CrCl values <30 mL/min at screening were excluded from the MAGELLAN study. In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min a dose of XARELTO 10 mg once daily is expected to result in serum concentrations of rivaroxaban similar to those in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 15 to <30 mL/min. Avoid use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <15 mL/min.

Reduction of Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Chronic CAD or PAD

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease not on Dialysis

Patients with a CrCl <15 mL/min at screening were excluded from COMPASS, and limited data are available for patients with a CrCl of 15 to 30 mL/min. In patients with CrCl <30 mL/min, a dose of 2.5 mg XARELTO twice daily is expected to give an exposure similar to that in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , whose efficacy and safety outcomes were similar to those with preserved renal function.

Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis

No clinical outcome data is available for the use of XARELTO with aspirin in patients with ESRD on dialysis since these patients were not enrolled in COMPASS. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of XARELTO 2.5 mg twice daily will result in concentrations of rivaroxaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in moderate renal impaired patients in the COMPASS study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3)]. It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar CV risk reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in COMPASS.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

In a pharmacokinetic study, compared to healthy subjects with normal liver function, AUC increases of 127% were observed in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B).

The safety or PK of XARELTO in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) has not been evaluated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Overdose of XARELTO may lead to hemorrhage. Discontinue XARELTO and initiate appropriate therapy if bleeding complications associated with overdosage occur. Rivaroxaban systemic exposure is not further increased at single doses >50 mg due to limited absorption. The use of activated charcoal to reduce absorption in case of XARELTO overdose may be considered. Due to the high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not dialyzable [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Partial reversal of laboratory anticoagulation parameters may be achieved with use of plasma products. An agent to reverse the anti-factor Xa activity of rivaroxaban is available.

11 DESCRIPTION

Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor, is the active ingredient in XARELTO® Tablets with the chemical name 5-Chloro-N-({(5S)-2-oxo-3-[4-(3-oxo-4-morpholinyl)phenyl]-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl}methyl)-2-thiophenecarboxamide. The molecular formula of rivaroxaban is C19 H18 ClN3 O5 S and the molecular weight is 435.89. The structural formula is:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Rivaroxaban is a pure (S)-enantiomer. It is an odorless, non-hygroscopic, white to yellowish powder. Rivaroxaban is only slightly soluble in organic solvents (e.g., acetone, polyethylene glycol 400) and is practically insoluble in water and aqueous media.

Each XARELTO tablet contains 2.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, or 20 mg of rivaroxaban. The inactive ingredients of XARELTO are: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium lauryl sulfate. Additionally, the proprietary film coating mixture used for XARELTO 2.5 mg is Opadry® Light Yellow, containing ferric oxide yellow, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 3350, and titanium dioxide, and for XARELTO 10 mg tablets is Opadry® Pink and for XARELTO 15 mg tablets is Opadry® Red, both containing ferric oxide red, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 3350, and titanium dioxide, and for XARELTO 20 mg tablets is Opadry® II Dark Red, containing ferric oxide red, polyethylene glycol 3350, polyvinyl alcohol (partially hydrolyzed), talc, and titanium dioxide.

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