Xcopri Titration Pack (Page 2 of 9)

5.3 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including XCOPRI, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.

Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.

The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed.

Table 3 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.

Table 3: Risk of Suicidal Thoughts or Behaviors by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled Analysis
Indication Placebo Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients Risk Differences: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients
Epilepsy 1.0 3.4 3.5 2.4
Psychiatric 5.7 8.5 1.5 2.9
Other 1.0 1.8 1.9 0.9
Total 2.4 4.3 1.8 1.9

The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials in patients with epilepsy than in clinical trials in patients with psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for epilepsy and psychiatric indications.

Anyone considering prescribing XCOPRI or any other AED must balance this risk with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.

5.4 Neurological Adverse Reactions

Somnolence and Fatigue

XCOPRI causes dose-dependent increases in somnolence and fatigue-related adverse reactions (somnolence, fatigue, asthenia, malaise, hypersomnia, sedation, and lethargy) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In Study 1 and Study 2, 31% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 100 mg/day, 36% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 200 mg/day, and 57% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 400 mg/day reported at least one of these adverse reactions, compared to 19% of patients who received placebo. Somnolence and fatigue-related adverse reactions were serious in 0.4% of XCOPRI-treated patients compared to no patients who received placebo and led to discontinuation in 2% of XCOPRI-treated patients compared to 1% of patients who received placebo.

Dizziness and Disturbance in Gait and Coordination

XCOPRI causes dose-dependent adverse reactions related to dizziness and disturbance in gait and coordination (dizziness, vertigo, balance disorder, ataxia, nystagmus, gait disturbance, and abnormal coordination) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In Study 1 and Study 2, 21% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 100 mg/day, 31% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 200 mg/day, and 52% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 400 mg/day reported at least one of these adverse reactions, compared to 18% of patients who received placebo. Dizziness and disturbance in gait and coordination adverse reactions were serious in 2% of XCOPRI-treated patients compared to no patients who received placebo and led to discontinuation in 5% of XCOPRI-treated patients compared to 1% of patients who received placebo.

Cognitive Dysfunction

XCOPRI causes adverse reactions related to cognitive dysfunction related-events (i.e., memory impairment, disturbance in attention, amnesia, confusional state, aphasia, speech disorder, slowness of thought, disorientation, and psychomotor retardation) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In Study 1 and Study 2, 6% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 100 mg/day, 6% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 200 mg/day, and 9% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 400 mg/day reported at least one of these adverse reactions, compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. No cognitive dysfunction-related events were serious in XCOPRI-treated patients or in patients who received placebo. Cognitive dysfunction related adverse reactions led to discontinuation in 0.4% of XCOPRI-treated patients compared to no patients who received placebo.

Visual Changes

XCOPRI causes adverse reactions related to visual changes including diplopia, blurred vision, and impaired vision [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In Study 1 and Study 2, 9% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 100 mg/day, 9% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 200 mg/day, and 18% of patients randomized to receive XCOPRI at 400 mg/day reported at least one of these adverse reactions, compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. No visual change-related events were serious in XCOPRI-treated patients or in patients who received placebo. Visual change led to discontinuation in 0.5% of XCOPRI-treated patients compared to no patients who received placebo.

Risk Amelioration

Prescribers should advise patients against engaging in hazardous activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating motor vehicles or dangerous machinery, until the effect of XCOPRI is known. Patients should be carefully observed for signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression, such as somnolence and sedation, when XCOPRI is used with other drugs with sedative properties because of potential additive effects.

5.5 Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs

As with most antiepileptic drugs, XCOPRI should generally be withdrawn gradually because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Studies (14)]. But if withdrawal is needed because of a serious adverse event, rapid discontinuation can be considered.

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