Xenazine

XENAZINE- tetrabenazine tablet
Lundbeck Inc.

Xenazine® (tetrabenazine) Tablets

WARNING: DEPRESSION AND SUICIDALITY

XENAZINE can increase the risk of depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior (suicidality) in patients with Huntington’s disease. Anyone considering the use of XENAZINE must balance the risks of depression and suicidality with the clinical need for control of chorea. Close observation of patients for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior should accompany therapy. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed of the risk of depression and suicidality and should be instructed to report behaviors of concern promptly to the treating physician.

Particular caution should be exercised in treating patients with a history of depression or prior suicide attempts or ideation, which are increased in frequency in Huntington’s disease. XENAZINE is contraindicated in patients who are actively suicidal, and in patients with untreated or inadequately treated depression [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

XENAZINE is indicated for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington’s disease.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 General Dosing Considerations

The chronic daily dose of XENAZINE used to treat chorea associated with Huntington’s disease (HD) is determined individually for each patient. When first prescribed, XENAZINE therapy should be titrated slowly over several weeks to identify a dose of XENAZINE that reduces chorea and is tolerated. XENAZINE can be administered without regard to food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.2 Individualization of Dose

The dose of XENAZINE should be individualized.

Dosing Recommendations Up to 50 mg per day

The starting dose should be 12.5 mg per day given once in the morning. After one week, the dose should be increased to 25 mg per day given as 12.5 mg twice a day. XENAZINE should be titrated up slowly at weekly intervals by 12.5 mg daily, to allow the identification of a tolerated dose that reduces chorea. If a dose of 37.5 to 50 mg per day is needed, it should be given in a three times a day regimen. The maximum recommended single dose is 25 mg. If adverse reactions such as akathisia, restlessness, parkinsonism, depression, insomnia, anxiety or sedation occur, titration should be stopped and the dose should be reduced. If the adverse reaction does not resolve, consideration should be given to withdrawing XENAZINE treatment or initiating other specific treatment (e.g., antidepressants) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Dosing Recommendations Above 50 mg per day

Patients who require doses of XENAZINE greater than 50 mg per day should be first tested and genotyped to determine if they are poor metabolizers (PMs) or extensive metabolizers (EMs) by their ability to express the drug metabolizing enzyme, CYP2D6. The dose of XENAZINE should then be individualized accordingly to their status as PMs or EMs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Extensive and Intermediate CYP2D6 Metabolizers

Genotyped patients who are identified as extensive (EMs) or intermediate metabolizers (IMs) of CYP2D6, who need doses of XENAZINE above 50 mg per day, should be titrated up slowly at weekly intervals by 12.5 mg daily, to allow the identification of a tolerated dose that reduces chorea. Doses above 50 mg per day should be given in a three times a day regimen. The maximum recommended daily dose is 100 mg and the maximum recommended single dose is 37.5 mg. If adverse reactions such as akathisia, parkinsonism, depression, insomnia, anxiety or sedation occur, titration should be stopped and the dose should be reduced. If the adverse reaction does not resolve, consideration should be given to withdrawing XENAZINE treatment or initiating other specific treatment (e.g., antidepressants) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Poor CYP2D6 Metabolizers

In PMs, the initial dose and titration is similar to EMs except that the recommended maximum single dose is 25 mg, and the recommended daily dose should not exceed a maximum of 50 mg [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.3 Dosage Adjustments with CYP2D6 Inhibitors

Strong CYP2D6 Inhibitors

Medications that are strong CYP2D6 inhibitors such as quinidine or antidepressants (e.g., fluoxetine, paroxetine) significantly increase the exposure to α-HTBZ and β-HTBZ, therefore, the total dose of XENAZINE should not exceed a maximum of 50 mg and the maximum single dose should not exceed 25 mg [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.4 Discontinuation of Treatment

Treatment with XENAZINE can be discontinued without tapering. Re-emergence of chorea may occur within 12 to 18 hours after the last dose of XENAZINE [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)].

2.5 Resumption of Treatment

Following treatment interruption of greater than five (5) days, XENAZINE therapy should be re-titrated when resumed. For short-term treatment interruption of less than five (5) days, treatment can be resumed at the previous maintenance dose without titration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

XENAZINE tablets are available in the following strengths and packages:

The 12.5 mg XENAZINE tablets are white, cylindrical biplanar tablets with beveled edges, non-scored, embossed on one side with “CL” and “12.5.”

The 25 mg XENAZINE tablets are yellowish-buff, cylindrical biplanar tablets with beveled edges, scored, embossed on one side with “CL” and “25.”

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

XENAZINE is contraindicated in patients:

Who are actively suicidal, or in patients with untreated or inadequately treated depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
With hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). XENAZINE should not be used in combination with an MAOI, or within a minimum of 14 days of discontinuing therapy with an MAOI [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Taking reserpine. At least 20 days should elapse after stopping reserpine before starting XENAZINE [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Clinical Worsening and Adverse Effects

Huntington’s disease is a progressive disorder characterized by changes in mood, cognition, chorea, rigidity, and functional capacity over time. In a 12-week controlled trial, XENAZINE was also shown to cause slight worsening in mood, cognition, rigidity, and functional capacity. Whether these effects persist, resolve, or worsen with continued treatment is unknown.

Prescribers should periodically re-evaluate the need for XENAZINE in their patients by assessing the beneficial effect on chorea and possible adverse effects, including depression, cognitive decline, parkinsonism, dysphagia, sedation/somnolence, akathisia, restlessness and disability. It may be difficult to distinguish between drug-induced side-effects and progression of the underlying disease; decreasing the dose or stopping the drug may help the clinician distinguish between the two possibilities. In some patients, underlying chorea itself may improve over time, decreasing the need for XENAZINE.

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