Xeomin (Page 7 of 12)
There are no data on the presence of XEOMIN in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for XEOMIN and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from XEOMIN or from the underlying maternal conditions.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of XEOMIN in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established for lower limb spasticity, cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, or glabellar frown lines [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Chronic Sialorrhea in Pediatric Patients
The safety and effectiveness of XEOMIN have been established by evidence from an adequate and well-controlled study of XEOMIN in patients 6 to 17 years of age with chronic sialorrhea [See Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Use of XEOMIN in patients 2 to 5 years of age is supported by the findings of efficacy and safety in patients 6 years and older with chronic sialorrhea, and by safety data in patients 2 to 5 years of age. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Upper Limb Spasticity in Pediatric Patients, Excluding Spasticity Caused by Cerebral Palsy
Safety and effectiveness have been established in pediatric patients 2 to 17 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The safety and effectiveness of XEOMIN have been established by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of XEOMIN in patients 2 to 17 years of age with upper limb spasticity. A pediatric assessment for XEOMIN demonstrates that XEOMIN is safe and effective in another pediatric population. However, XEOMIN is not approved for such patient population due to marketing exclusivity for another botulinum toxin. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
In a study in which juvenile rats received intramuscular injections of Xeomin (0, 5, 10, or 30 Units/kg) every other week from postnatal day 21 for 10 weeks, decreased limb use, decreased body weight gain, skeletal muscle atrophy, and decreased bone growth and density were observed at all doses. Male reproductive organ histopathology (atrophy of the germinal epithelium of the testis, associated with hypospermia) was observed at the mid and high doses, and mating behavior was impaired at the high dose. A no-effect dose for adverse effects on development in juvenile animals was not established. The lowest dose tested (5 Units/kg) is less than the human dose of 400 Units on a body weight (kg) basis.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of 184 patients in the placebo-controlled study in chronic sialorrhea in adult patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] , 107 were 65 years of age and over (46 treated with XEOMIN 100 Units, 44 treated with XEOMIN 75 Units, and 17 received placebo). No differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between older and younger patients. Other clinical studies have not identified differences in responses between older and younger patients, but increased sensitivity in older patients cannot be ruled out.
Upper Limb Spasticity
Of the total number of 283 patients in the placebo-controlled studies in upper limb spasticity in adult patients [see Clinical Studies (14.2)], 118 were 65 years of age and over (70 treated with XEOMIN and 48 received placebo), which included 12 patients 75 years of age and over (7 treated with XEOMIN and 5 received placebo). No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between older and younger adult patients. Other clinical studies have not identified differences in responses between older and younger adult patients, but increased sensitivity in older patients cannot be ruled out.
Of the total number of 233 patients in the placebo-controlled study in cervical dystonia [see Clinical Studies (14.3)] , 29 were 65 years of age and over (19 treated with XEOMIN and 10 received placebo). Of these, ten XEOMIN-treated patients and four placebo-treated patients experienced an adverse event. For patients 65 years of age and over treated with XEOMIN, the most common adverse events were dysphagia (21%) and asthenia (11%).
Of the total number of 169 patients in the placebo-controlled studies in blepharospasm [see Clinical Studies (14.4)] , 61 were 65 years of age and over (45 treated with XEOMIN and 16 received placebo). No overall difference in effectiveness was observed between older and younger patients.
There are limited clinical data with XEOMIN in subjects 65 years of age and over in clinical studies with glabellar lines. Of the total number of 547 subjects in the placebo-controlled clinical studies [see Clinical Studies (14.5)] , 21 subjects were 65 years of age and over. Efficacy was observed in 20% (3/15) of XEOMIN subjects 65 years of age and over. For the entire safety database of geriatric subjects, there was no increase in the incidence of adverse events related to treatment with XEOMIN.
Excessive doses of XEOMIN may be expected to produce neuromuscular weakness with a variety of symptoms, particularly when treated intramuscularly. Respiratory support may be required where excessive doses cause paralysis of the respiratory muscles. In the event of overdose, the patient should be medically monitored for symptoms of excessive muscle weakness or muscle paralysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.4)]. Symptomatic treatment may be necessary.
Symptoms of overdose are not likely to be present immediately following injection. Should accidental injection or oral ingestion occur, the person should be medically supervised for several weeks for signs and symptoms of excessive muscle weakness or paralysis.
There is no significant information regarding overdose from clinical studies of XEOMIN.
In the event of overdose, antitoxin raised against botulinum toxin is available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. However, the antitoxin will not reverse any botulinum toxin-induced effects already apparent by the time of antitoxin administration. In the event of suspected or actual cases of botulinum toxin poisoning, please contact your local or state Health Department to process a request for antitoxin through the CDC. If you do not receive a response within 30 minutes, please contact the CDC directly at 770-488-7100. More information can be obtained at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/srp/drugs/formulary.html#1a.
The active ingredient of XEOMIN is botulinum toxin type A produced from fermentation of Hall strain Clostridium botulinum serotype A. The botulinum toxin complex is purified from the culture supernatant and then the active ingredient is separated from the proteins (hemagglutinins and non-hemagglutinins) through a series of steps yielding the active neurotoxin with molecular weight of 150 kDa, without accessory proteins. XEOMIN is a sterile white to off-white lyophilized powder intended for intramuscular or intra-salivary gland injection after reconstitution with preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP [see Dosage Forms and Strengths (3)]. One vial of XEOMIN contains 50 Units, 100 Units, or 200 Units of incobotulinumtoxinA, human albumin (1 mg), and sucrose (4.7 mg).
The primary release procedure for XEOMIN uses a cell-based potency assay to determine the potency relative to a reference standard. One Unit corresponds to the median intraperitoneal lethal dose (LD50 ) in mice. As the method for conducting the assay is specific to XEOMIN, Units of biological activity of XEOMIN cannot be converted into Units of any other botulinum toxin assessed with other specific assays.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
XEOMIN blocks cholinergic transmission at the neuromuscular and salivary neuroglandular junction by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine from peripheral cholinergic nerve endings. This inhibition occurs according to the following sequence: neurotoxin binding to cholinergic nerve terminals, internalization of the neurotoxin into the nerve terminal, translocation of the light-chain part of the molecule into the cytosol of the nerve terminal, and enzymatic cleavage of SNAP25, a presynaptic target protein essential for the release of acetylcholine. In both muscles and glands, impulse transmission is re-established by the formation of new nerve endings.
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